27.2: Introduction - Biology

27.2: Introduction - Biology

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ELISA: See handout for all instructions

StaphTEX-Agglutination Reaction

Rapid tests are often used in a doctor’s office or clinic to identify bacteria. A similar test, StaphTEX, can be done for Staphylococcus aureus a potentially serious pathogen. The StaphTEX beads are coated with both IgG Ab to S. aureus and the protein Fibrinogen. S. aureus produces Protein A which will attach to the IgG, and often also coagulase which affects fibrinogen. The latex beads have two ways then, of being affected by the S. aureus.

If S. aureus is present in the patient isolate an agglutination reaction occurs with the latex beads and will be visible as the precipitation of blue clumps. A negative test will not have clumping.

Lecture notes, lectures 1 - 9, 11, 12 - Introduction to cellular biology

Big Question : What are the major characteristics of these groups?

3 “most general” levels of classification:

 Domain bacteria o Shape: spherical (cocci [round]) rod-shaped (bacilus) spiral (spirochaetes) o Gramstain (staining the bacteria) Fig. 27.  Gram negative: pink/red  General characteristics o More pathogenic (have LPS)  Often resistant to antibiotics o Less peptidoglycan  Thinner cell wall o Has 2 membranes (outer &ampamp plasma= extra layer of protection)  Gram positive: purple/blueish  General characteristics o Less pathogenic (lack “toxins=LPS lipopolysaccharides”)  Easier to treat with antibiotics o Has more peptidoglycan  Thicker cell wall o has one membrane (plasma membrane)

QUESTIONS: -Do all bacteria have peptidoglycan (PG) in their cell walls?

A. No- some have lost it (Ex. Chlamydia)

-If test is positive for PG is it a prokaryote?

-grouping includes domain bacteria and domain archaea (archaea lacks PG)

A. yes, note domain archaea is also prokaryote

-If test is positive for PG is it a bacterium?

-Yes: presence of PG is diagnostic for bacteria

 Domain Archaea o Mainly exist in the ocean key producers of oxygen  Acidification in ocean leads to lower levels of oxygen- can become a problem o Lacks PG o Groupings (Fig. 27.1)  Methanogens  Produce CH4 (methane) o Ex. Sediment in swamps, gastro-intestingal  Thermophiles  Live in higher temperatures o Ex. Hot springs  Halophiles  ‘Salt-lovers’ o Ex. Brackish ponds, shrimp ponds  Domain Eukarya (Fig. 26.3) o Common organisms  Ex. Plants, animals, fungi o Common groupings  Protists  Single-celled organisms  Plantae (plants)  Fungi  Animalia (animals) o Lacks PG

Properties Common to all Cells

 Organization and order (fig. 1.3) o Levels, for example:  Atomic  Molecule  Organelles (structure/function)  Layers of cells (tissues)  Organs  Organism  Growth and Development o Growth  Cell size (limited)  An increase in cell number (cell biologyfocus topic)

Gunter Frank, Léa Linster, Michael Wink . 2018

Heidelberger Jahrbücher online Band 2 (2017) Gesellschaft der Freunde Universität Heidelberg e.V.

Michael Wink & Joachim Funke (Hrsg):
Heidelberger Jahrbücher online Band 1 (2016) Gesellschaft der Freunde Universität Heidelberg e.V.

Ben E. van Wyk, Coralie Wink und Michael Wink:
Handbuch der Arzneipflanzen, Deutscher Apotheker Verlag 2015

Ben E. van Wyk und Michael Wink:
Phytomedicines, Herbal Drugs and Poisons
Kew Publishing, Cambridge University
Press 2015

Springer Spektrum Heidelberg, 2013

V. Storch, U. Welsch, Michael Wink:
Evolutionsbiologie, 3. Auflage, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Michael Wink, Hedi Sauer-Gürth: Molecular taxonomy and systematics of owls (Strigiformes) - An update. AIRO, Volume 29, 487-500 (2021)

Bermúdes-Torres, K., Ferval, M., Hernández-Sánchez, A. M., Tei, A., Gers, Ch., Michael Wink and Legal, L.: Molecular and chemical markers to illustrate the complex diversity of the genus Lupinus (Fabaceae).Diversity 13, 263 (2021)

El-Readi, M. Z., Al-Abd, A. M., Althubiti, M. A., Almaimani, R. A., Al-Amoodi, H. S., Ashour, M. L., Michael Wink and Eid, S. Y.: Multiple molecular mechanisms to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer by natural secondary metabolites. Frontiers in Pharmacology, Vol. 12 (2021)

Anwar, H. M., Georgy, G. S., Hamad, S. R., Badr, W. K, El-Raey, A., Abdelfattah, M. A. O., Michael Wink and Sobeh, M.: A leaf extract of Harrisonia abyssinica ameliorates neurobehavioral, histological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus of rats with aluminum chloride-induced Alzheimer's disease. Antioxiants10, 947 (2021)

Duangjan, C., Rangsinth, P., Zhang, S. Gu, X., Michael Wink and Tencomnao, T.: Vitis Vinifera leaf extract protects against glutamate-induced oxidative toxicity in HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells and increases stress resistance properties in Caenorhabditis Elegans. Frontiers in Nutrition, Volume 8 (2021)

Ayoub, I. M., Korinek, M., El-Shazly, M., Wetterauer, B., El-Beshbishy, H. A., Hwang, T.-L., Chen, B.-H., Chang, F.-R., Michael Wink, Signab, A. N. B. and Youssef F. S.: Anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Chasmanthe aethiopica leaf extract and its profiling using LC/MS and GLC/MS, Plants 10, 1118 (2021)

Pârâu, L., Michael Wink: Common patterns in the molecular phylogeography of western palearctic birds: a comprehensive review. Journal of Ornithology (2021)

El-Hawary, S. S., Hammam, W. E., El-Tantawi, El-Mahdy, M., Yassin, N. A. Z., Kirollos F. N., Abdelhameed, M. F., Abdelfattah, M. A. O., Michael Wink, Sobeh, M.: Apple leaves and their major secondary metabolite phlorizin exhibit distinct neuroprotective activities: Evidence from in vivo and in silico studies. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 14 (2021)

Wetterauer, B., Hummel, E., Walczak, S., Distl, M., Langhans, M., Wetterauer, P., Sporer, F., Wildi, E. and Michael Wink: Physiology of camptothecin synthesis in plants and root organ cultures of Ophiorrhiza mungos L. and its production in root fermenters.In: Sonia Malik, Exploring Plant Cells for the Production of Compounds of Interest, Springer (eBook) (2021)

Jakimiuk, K., Michael Wink, Tomczyk, M.: Flavonoids of the Caryophyllaceae: Phytochem Rev. (2021)

Domhan, C., Michael Wink: Mehr als ein Frühlingsbote. Das Schneeglöckchen ist auch Giftpflanze und Arzneistofflieferant. DAZ Nr. 13, S. 60 (2021)

Frias-Soler, R.-C., Villarin Pildain, L., Michael Wink and Franz Bairlein: A revised and improved version of the Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) transcriptome. Diversity 13, 151 (2021)

Michael Wink: DNA analyses have revolutionized studies on the taxonomy and evolution in birds. IntechOpen (2021). DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.97013

Tawfeek, N., Mahmoud, M. F., Hamdan, D. I., Sobeh, M., Farrag, N., Michael Wink and El-Shazly, A. M.: Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal uses of plants of the genus Salix: An updated review. Frontiers in Pharmacology, Vol. 12 (2021)

Qi, Z., Ji, H., Le, M., Li, H., Wieland, A., Bauer, S., Liu, L., Michael Wink, Herr, I.: Sulforaphane promotes C. elegans longevity and healthspan via DAF-16/DAF-2 insulin/IGF-1 signaling. Aging , Vol. 13, (2021)

Kittimongkolsuk, P., Roxo, M., Li, H. Chuchawankul, S., Michael Wink and Tencomnao, T.: Extracts of the tiger milk mushroom (Lignosus rhinocerus) enhance stress resistance and extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans via the DAF-16/FoxO signaling pathway. Pharmaceuticals 14, 93 (2021)

Nibret, E., Krstin, S. and Michael Wink: In vitro anti-proliferative activity of selected nutraceutical compounds in human cancer cell lines. BMC Research Notes (2021)

Asem, A., Eimanifar, A., Li, W., Shen, Ch-Y., Shikhsarmast, F. M., Dan, Ya-Ting, Lu, Hao, Zhou, Yang, Chen, You, Wang, P.-Z. and Michael Wink: Reanalysis and revision of the complete mitochondrial genome of Artemia urmiana Günther, 1899, (Crustacea: Anostraca) Diversity 13, 14 (2021)

Kittimongkolsuk, P., Pattarachotanant, N., Chuchawankul, S., Michael Wink and Tewin Tencomnao: Neuroprotective effects of extracts from Tiger Milk Mushroom Lignosus rhinocerus against glutamate-induced toxicity in HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells and neurodegenerative diseases in Caenorhabditis elegans. Biology 10, 30 (2021)

Sobeh, M., Hassan, S. A., Hassan M. A. E., Khalil, W. A., Abdelfattah, M. A. O., Michael Wink and Yasri, A.: A polyphenol-rich extract from Entada abyssinica reduces oxidative damage in cryopreserved ram semen. Frontiers Vol. 7 (2020)

Eben, A., Sporer, F., Vogt, H., Wetterauer, P. and Michael Wink: Search for alternative control strategies of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae): Laboratory assays using volatile natural plant compounds. Insects, 11, 0811 (2020)

Ben Toumia, I., Sobeh, M., Ponassi, M., Banelli, B., Dameriha, A., Michael Wink, Ghedira, L. C. and Rosano, C.: A methanol extract of Scabiosa atropurpurea enhances doxorubicin cytotoxicity against resistant colorectal cancer cells in vitro. Molecules , 25, 5265 (2020)

Sharopov, F., Wetterauer, B., Gulmurodov, I., Khalifaev, D., Safarzoda, R., Sobeh, M. and Michael Wink: Chlorogenic and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid-rich extract of topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus L.) exhibits strong antioxidant activity and weak cytotoxicity. Medicinal Plants, Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal , Vol. 54, No. 7 (2020)

Youssef, F. S., Ashour, M. L., El-Beshbishy, H. A., Hamza, A. A., Singab, A. N., B. and Michael Wink: Pinoresinol-4-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside: a lignan from prunes (Prunus domestica) attenuates oxidative stress, hyperglycaemia and hepatic toxicity in vitro and in vivo. Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology (2020)

Sobeh, M., Hamza, M. S., Ashour, M. L., Elkhatieb, M., El Raey, M. A., Abdel-Naim, A. B. and Michael Wink: A polyphenol-rich fraction from Eugenia uniflora exhibits antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities in vivo. Pharmaceuticals 13, 84 (2020)

De Melo Moura, C. C., Fernandes, A. M., Aleixo, A., de Araujo, H. F. P.,de Freitas Mariano, E. & Michael Wink: Evolutionary history of the pectoral sparrow arremon taciturnus: evidence for diversification during the late pleistocene. IBIS . Bitish Ornithologists' Union (2020)

Zhang, S., Duangjan, C., Tencomnao, T., Liu, J., Lin, J., and Michael Wink: Neuroprotective effects of oolong tea extracts against glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured neuronal cells and ß-amyloid-induced toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Food & Function. The Royal Society of Chemistry (2020)

Mostafa, I., Abbas, H. A., Ashour, M. L., Yasri, A., El-Shazly, A. M., Michael Wink, and Sobeh, M.: Polyphenols from Salix tetrasperma impair virulence and inhibit quorum sensing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Molecules, 25, 1341 (2020)

El-Hawary, S. S., Sobeh, M., Badr., W. K., Abdelfattah, M. A. O., Ali, Z. Y., El-Tantawy, M. E., Rabeh, M. A., Michael Wink: HPLC-PDA-MS/MS profiling of secondary metabolites from Opuntia ficus-indica cladode, peel and fruit pulp extracts and their antioxidant, neuroprotective effect in rats with aluminum chloride induced neurotoxicity. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 27, pp. 2829-2838 (2020)

Roxo, M., Peixoto, H., Wetterauer, P., Lima, E. and Michael Wink: Piquiá Shells (Caryocar villosum): A fruit by-product with antioxidant and antiaging properties in Caenorhabditis elegans. Hindawi, Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity (2020)

Grinkov, V. G., Bauer, A., Sternberg, H. and Michael Wink: Heritability of the extra-pair mating behaviour of the pied flycatcher in Western Siberia. Peer J. (2020)

El-Hawary, S. S., Sobeh, M., Badr, W. K., Abdelfattah, M. A. O, Ali, Z. Y., El-Tantawy, M. E., Rabeh, M. A, Michael Wink: HPLC-PDA-MS/MS profiling of secondary metabolites from Opuntia ficus-indica cladode, peel and fruit pulp extracts and their antioxidant, neuroprotective effect in rats with aluminum chloride induced neurotoxicity. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences (2020)

Eid, S., Althubiti, M., Abdallah, M. E., Michael Wink, El-Readi, M. Z.: The carotenoid fucoxanthin can sensitize multidrug resistant cancer cells to doxorubicin via induction of apoptosis, inhibition of multidrug resistance proteins and metabolic enzymes. Phytomedicine 77 (2020)

Sharopov, F., Satyal, P., and Michael Wink: The chemical composition and biological activities of essential oil from the leaves of Philadelphus x purpureomaculatus Lemoine. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, Vol. 54, No. 4 (2020)

Michael Wink: Universalität der Bausteine und Prozesse des Lebens in Bd.5, Heidelberger Jahrbürcher, S. 31-51 (2020)

Braun, M. S., Zimmermann, S., Sporer, F. und Michael Wink: Antimikrobielle Eigenschaften von Bürzeldrüsensekreten. Vogelwarte 58, 247-254 (2020)

Tinoush, B., Shirdel, I. and Michael Wink: Phytochemicals: Potential Lead Molecules for MDR Reversal. Frontiers in Pharmacology, Vol. 11, Article 832 (2020)

Wang, E., Zhang, D., Braun, M. S., Hotz-Wagenblatt, A., Pärt, T., Arlt, D., Schmaljohann, H., Bairlein, F., Lei, F. und Michael Wink: Can mitogenomes of the Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) reconstruct its phylogeography and reveal in the origin of migrant birds? reports (2020)

Margalida, A., Schulze-Hagen, K., Wetterauer, B., Domhan, C., Oliva Vidal, P., Michael Wink: What do minerals in the feces of Bearded Vultures reveal about their dietary habits? Science of the Total Environment 728 (2020)

Michael Wink : Potential of DNA intercalating alkaloids and other plant secondary metabolites against SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19. Diversity, 12, 175 (2020)

Michael Wink: Biodiversität in Gefahr. In: Biologische Vielfalt erleben, wertschätzen, nachhaltig nutzen, durch Bildung stärken. Lissy Jäkel, Ulrike Kiehne, Sabrina Frieß (Hrsg.) Shaker Verlag Düren (2020)

Nevard, T. D., Haase, M., Archibald, G., Leiper, I., Van Zalinge, R. N., Purchkoon, N., Siriaroonrat, B., Latt, T. N., Michael Wink, Garnett, S. T.: Subspecies in the Sarus Crane Antigone antigone revisites with particular reference to the Australian population. Plos One (2020)

Sobeh, M., Rezq, S., Cheurfa, M., Abdelfattah, M. A. O., Rashied, R. M. H., El-Shazly, A. M., Yasri, A., Michael Wink and Mahmoud, M. F. : Thymus algeriensis and Thymus fontanesii: Chemical composition, in vivo antiinflammatory, pain killing and antipyretic activities: a comprehensive comparison. Biomolecules, 10, 599 (2020)

Amen, Y., Sherif, A. E., Shawky, N. M., Abdelrahman, R. S., Michael Wink and Sobeh, M. : Grape-Leaf extract attenuates alcohol-induced liver injury via Interference with NF-kB signaling pathway. Biomolecules 10, 558 (2020)

Eimanifar, Amin, Asem, A., Wang, P.-Z., Li, W. and Michael Wink: Using ISSR genomic fingerprinting to study the genetic differentiation of Artemia Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Anostraca) from Iran and neighbor regions with the focus on the invasive American Artemia franciscana. Diversity 12, 132 (2020)

Frias-Soler, R. C., Pildain, L., V., Parau, L. G., Michael Wink, Bairlein, F. : Transcriptome signatures in the brain of a migratory songbird. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part D 34 (2020)

Albrecht, F., Hering, J., Fuchs, E., Illera, J. C., Ihlow, F., Shannon, T. J., Collinson, J. M., Michael Wink, Martens, J., Päckert, M.: Phylogeny of the Eurasian Wren Nannus troglodytes (Aves: Passeriformes: Troglodytidae) reveals deep and complex diversification patterns of Ibero-Maghrebian and Cyrenaican populations. PLOS ONE, March 19 (2020)

Sobeh,M., Mahmoud, M. F., Rezq, S., Abedlfattah, M. A. O., Mostafa, I., Alsemeh, A. E., El-Shazly, A. M., Yasri, A. and Michael Wink: Haematoxylon campechianum extract ameliorates neuropathic pain via inhibition of NF-KB/TNF-a/NOX/iNOS signalling pathway in a rat model of chronic constriction Injury. Biomolecules 10, 386 (2020)

Fan, X., Xu, H., Song, J., Jin, Y., Michael Wink, and Wu, G .: Using a membrane-penetrating-peptide to anchor ligands in the liposome membrane facilitates targeted drug delivery. Bioconjugate Chem., 31, 113-122 (2020)

Shahamat, A-A., Rastegarpouyani, E., Rastegar-Pouyani, N., Yousefkhani, S. S. H. and Michael Wink : Molecular phylogeny and intraspecific differentiation of the Trapelus agilis species complex in Iran (Squamata: Agamidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. PeerJ, Feb. 2020, p. 10 (2020)

Elkady, W. M., Ayoub, I. M., Abdel-Mottaleb, Y., ElShafie, M. F. and Michael Wink: Euryops pectinatus L. Flower extract inhibits P-glycoprotein and reverses multi-drug resistance in cancer cells: A mechanistic study. Molecules, 25, 647 (2020)

Domhan, C., Umstätter, F., Zimmermann, S. und Michael Wink: Wenn Vancomycin versagt. Resistente Enterokokken bereiten Probleme. DAZ 148, No. 3 (2020)

Michael Wink: Evolution of the angiosperms and co-evolution of secondary metabolites, especially of alkaloids. In J.-M. Mérillon and K.G. Ramawat (eds.), Co-Evolution of Secondary Metabolites. Reference Series in Phytochemistry. Pp. 1-24, Springer (2020)

Arndt, T, Collar, N. J. & Michael Wink: The taxonomy of Tanygnathus sumatranus Bull. B.O.C. 139 (4) (2019)

Contreras, G., Shirdel, I., Braun, M. S., Michael Wink: Defensins: Transcriptional regulation and function beyond antimicrobial activity. Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 104 (2020)

Päckert, M. Belkacem, A. A., Wolfgramm, H., Gast, O., Canal, D., Giacalone, G., Lo Valvo, M. Vamberger, M., Michael Wink, Martens, J., Stuckas, H.: Genetic admixture despite ecological segregation in a North African sparrow hybrid zone (Aves, Passeriformes, Passer domesticus x Passer hispaniolensis). Ecology and Evolution, 1-17 (2019)

Sobeh, M., Mahmoud, M. F., Rezq, S., Alsemeh, A. E., Sabry, O. M., Mostafa, I., Abdelfattah, M. A. O., El-Allem. K. A., El-Shazly, A. M., Yasri, Y. and Michael Wink: Salix tetrasperma roxb. extract alleviates neuropathic pain in rats via modulation of the NF-kB/TNF-a/NOX/iNOS pathway. Antioxidants 8, 482 (2019)

Youssef, F. S., Ashour, M. L., Singab, A. N. B. and Michael Wink: A comprehensive review of bioactive peptides from marine fungi and their biological significance. Marine Drugs 17, 559 (2019)

Youssef, F. S., Ashour, M. L., El-Beshbishy, H. A., Singab, A. N. B. and Michael Wink: Metabolic profiling of Buddleia indica leaves using LC/MS and evidence of their antikoxidant and hepatoprotective activity using different in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Antioxidants 8, (2019)

Michael Wink: Schönheit aus evolutionärer Sicht, Heidelberger Jahrbücher, Band 4, 2019, Gesellschaft der Freunde Universität Heidelberg (2019)

Ghareeb, M. A., Sobeh, M., El-Maadawy, W. H., Mohammed, H. Sh. Khalil, H., Botros, S. and Michael Wink: Chemical profiling of polyphenolics in Eucalyptus globulus and evaluation of its hepato-renal protective potential against cyclophosphamide induced toxicity in mice. Antioxidants, 89 (2019)

Heim, W., Trense, D., Heim, A., Kamp, J., Smirenski, S. M., Michael Wink and Wulf, T.: Discovery of a new breeding population of the Wulnerable Swinhoe's Rail Coturnicops exquisitus confirmed by genetic analysis. Bird conservation International 29, 454-462 (2019)

Domhan, C., Uhl, P., Kleist, C., Zimmermann, S., Umstätter, F., Leotta, K., Mier, W. and Michael Wink: Replacement of L-amino acids by D-amino acids in the antimicrobial peptide ranalexin and its consequences for antimicrobial activity and biodistribution. Molecules, 24 (2019)

Wang, E., Braun, M. and Michael Wink: Chlorophyll and clorophyll derivatives interfere with multi-drug resistant cancer cells and bacteria, Molecules, 24 (2019)

Hegazi, N. M., Sobeh, M., Rezq, S., El-Raey, M., Dmirieh, M., El-Shazly, A. M., Mahmoud, M. F. & Michael Wink: Characterization of phenolic compounds from Eugenia supraaxillaris leaf extract using HPLC-PDA-MS/MS and its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and pain killing activities in vivo. Natureresearch, Scientific Reports (2019)

Thabit, S., Handoussa, H., Roxo, M., Cestari de Azevedo, B., El Sayed, N. S. E. and Michael Wink: Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott fruits increase stress resistance and exert antioxidant properties in Caenorhabditis elegans and mouse models. Molecules, 24, 2633 (2019)

Domhan, C., Dranova, Y. und Michael Wink: Gefürchtete Clostridien - Die Giftproduzenten unter den Bakerien. Deutsche Apotheker Zeitung Nr. 30, 159. Jg (2019)

Rangsinth, P., Prasansuklab, A., Duangjan, C., Gu, X., Meemon, K., Michael Wink and Tewin Tencomnao: Leaf extract of Caesalpinia mimosoides enhances oxidative stress resistance and prolongs lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 19, 164 (2019)

Gad, H. A., Ayoub, I. M., Michael Wink: Phytochemical profiling and seasonal variation of essential oils of three Callistemon species cultivated in Egypt. Plos One, July 11 (2019)

Sun, Y., Gao X., Wu, P., Michael Wink, Li, J., dian, L., Liang, Z.: Jatrorrhizine inhibits mammary carcinoma cells by targeting TNIK mediated Wnt/ß-catenin signalling and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Phytomedicine 63, 153015 (2019)

Michael Wink: A historical perspective of avian genomics. In: Kraus R. (eds) Avian Genomics in Ecology and Evolution. . Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Darwati, I., Nurcahyanti, A., Trisilawati, O., Nurhayati, H., Bermawie, N., Michael Wink: Anticancer potential of kebar grass (Biophytum petersianum), an Indonesian traditional medicine.IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 292, IOP Publishing (2019)

Michael Wink, Bernhard Wetterauer: Biotechnologische Produktion biogener Wirkstoffe, Wurzelkulturen als Produktionssystem. Biospektrum, 4.19, 25. JG, 455-457 (2019)

Tawfeek, N., Sobeh, M., Hamdan, D. I., Farrag, N., Roxo, M., El-Shazly, A. M. and Michael Wink: Phenolic compounds from Populus alba L. and Salix subserrata Willd. (Salicaceae) counteract oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans. Molecules, 24 (2019)

Yousefkhani, S. S. H., Rastegar-Pouyani, E., Ilgaz, C., Kumlutas, Y., Avci, A. & Michael Wink: Evidences for ecological niche differentiation og the Anatolian lizard (Apathya cappadocia ssp.) (Reptilia: Lacertidae in western Asia. Biologia (2019)

Sobeh, M., Rezq, S., Sabry, O. M. Abdelfattah, M. A. O., El Raey, M., A., El-Kashak, W. A., El-Shazly, A. M., Mahmoud, M. F., Michael Wink: Albizia anthelmintica: HPLC-MS/MS profiling and in vivo anti-inflammatory, pain killing and antipyretic activities of its leaf extract. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 115, 108882 (2019)

Petruk, G., Roxo, M., De Lise, F., Mensitieri, F., Notomista, E., Michael Wink, Izzo, V., Monti, D. M. : The marine Gram-negative bacterium Novosphingobium sp. PP1Y as a potential source of novel metabolites with antioxidant activity. Biotechnol. Lett, 41, 273-281 (2019)

Margalida, A., Braun, M. S., Negro, J. J., Schulze-Hagen, K. and Michael Wink: Cosmetic colouring by bearded vultures Gypaetus barbatus: still no evidence for an antibacterial function. PeerJ (2019)

Fan, X., Xu, W., Han, J., Jiang, X., Michael Wink, Wu, G.: Antimicrobial peptide hybrid fluorescent protein based sensor array discriminate ten most frequent clinic isolates. BBA-General Subjects 1863, 1158-1166 (2019)

Sobeh, M., Petruk, G., Osman, S., El Raey, M. A., Imbimbo, P., Monti, D. M. and Michael Wink: Isolation of myricitrin and 3,5-di-o-methyl gossypetin from Syzygium samarangenese and evaluation of their involvement in protecting keratinocytes against oxidative stress via activation of the nrf-2 pathway. Molecules, 24 (2019)

Zhou, Junxian and Michael Wink: Evidence for anti-inflammatory activity of isoliquiritigenin, 18ß glycyrrhetinic acid, ursolic acid, and the traditional chinese medicine plants Glycyrrhiza glabra and Eriobotrya japonica, at the molecular level. Medicines 6, 55 (2019)

Asem, A., Eimanifar, A., Li, W., Wang, P.-Z., Brooks, S. A. and Michael Wink: Phylogeography and population genetic structure of an exotic invasive brine shrimp, Artemia Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Anostraca), in Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology (2019)

Michael Wink: Quinolizidine and pyrrolizidine alkaloid chemical ecology - a mini-review on their similarities and differences. Journal of Chemical Ecology 45, 109-115 (2019)

Zhou, J., Braun, M. S., Wetterauer, P., Wetterauer, B. and Michael Wink: Antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Paeonia lactiflora Pall., and Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. extracts. Medicines 6, 43 (2019)

Andreyenkova, N. G., Starikov, I. J., Michael Wink, Karyakin, I. V., Andreyenkov, O. V., Zhimulev, I. F.: The problems of genetic support of dividing the black kite (Milvus migrans) into subspecies. Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding. 23 (2), 226-231 (2019)


Mendel was born into a German-speaking Czech family in Hynčice (Heinzendorf bei Odrau in German), at the Moravian-Silesian border, Austrian Empire (now a part of the Czech Republic). [5] He was the son of Anton and Rosine (Schwirtlich) Mendel and had one older sister, Veronika, and one younger, Theresia. They lived and worked on a farm which had been owned by the Mendel family for at least 130 years [9] (the house where Mendel was born is now a museum devoted to Mendel [10] ). During his childhood, Mendel worked as a gardener and studied beekeeping. As a young man, he attended gymnasium in Opava (called Troppau in German). He had to take four months off during his gymnasium studies due to illness. From 1840 to 1843, he studied practical and theoretical philosophy and physics at the Philosophical Institute of the University of Olomouc, taking another year off because of illness. He also struggled financially to pay for his studies, and Theresia gave him her dowry. Later he helped support her three sons, two of whom became doctors. [11]

He became a monk in part because it enabled him to obtain an education without having to pay for it himself. [12] As the son of a struggling farmer, the monastic life, in his words, spared him the "perpetual anxiety about a means of livelihood." [13] Born Johann Mendel, he was given the name Gregor (Řehoř in Czech) [2] when he joined the Augustinian monks. [14]

When Mendel entered the Faculty of Philosophy, the Department of Natural History and Agriculture was headed by Johann Karl Nestler who conducted extensive research of hereditary traits of plants and animals, especially sheep. Upon recommendation of his physics teacher Friedrich Franz, [15] Mendel entered the Augustinian St Thomas's Abbey in Brno (called Brünn in German) and began his training as a priest. Mendel worked as a substitute high school teacher. In 1850, he failed the oral part, the last of three parts, of his exams to become a certified high school teacher. In 1851, he was sent to the University of Vienna to study under the sponsorship of Abbot Cyril František Napp [cz] so that he could get more formal education. [16] At Vienna, his professor of physics was Christian Doppler. [17] Mendel returned to his abbey in 1853 as a teacher, principally of physics. In 1856, he took the exam to become a certified teacher and again failed the oral part. [18] In 1867, he replaced Napp as abbot of the monastery. [19]

After he was elevated as abbot in 1868, his scientific work largely ended, as Mendel became overburdened with administrative responsibilities, especially a dispute with the civil government over its attempt to impose special taxes on religious institutions. [20] Mendel died on 6 January 1884, at the age of 61, in Brno, Moravia, Austria-Hungary (now Czech Republic), from chronic nephritis. Czech composer Leoš Janáček played the organ at his funeral. After his death, the succeeding abbot burned all papers in Mendel's collection, to mark an end to the disputes over taxation. [21]

Experiments on plant hybridization

Gregor Mendel, known as the "father of modern genetics", chose to study variation in plants in his monastery's 2 hectares (4.9 acres) experimental garden. [22]

After initial experiments with pea plants, Mendel settled on studying seven traits that seemed to be inherited independently of other traits: seed shape, flower color, seed coat tint, pod shape, unripe pod color, flower location, and plant height. He first focused on seed shape, which was either angular or round. [23] Between 1856 and 1863 Mendel cultivated and tested some 28,000 plants, the majority of which were pea plants (Pisum sativum). [24] [25] [26] This study showed that, when true-breeding different varieties were crossed to each other (e.g., tall plants fertilized by short plants), in the second generation, one in four pea plants had purebred recessive traits, two out of four were hybrids, and one out of four were purebred dominant. His experiments led him to make two generalizations, the Law of Segregation and the Law of Independent Assortment, which later came to be known as Mendel's Laws of Inheritance. [27]

Initial reception of Mendel's work

Mendel presented his paper, "Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden" ("Experiments on Plant Hybridization"), at two meetings of the Natural History Society of Brno in Moravia on 8 February and 8 March 1865. [28] It generated a few favorable reports in local newspapers, [26] but was ignored by the scientific community. When Mendel's paper was published in 1866 in Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereines in Brünn, [29] it was seen as essentially about hybridization rather than inheritance, had little impact, and was only cited about three times over the next thirty-five years. His paper was criticized at the time, but is now considered a seminal work. [30] Notably, Charles Darwin was not aware of Mendel's paper, and it is envisaged that if he had been aware of it, genetics as it exists now might have taken hold much earlier. [31] [32] Mendel's scientific biography thus provides an example of the failure of obscure, highly original innovators to receive the attention they deserve. [33]

Rediscovery of Mendel's work

About forty scientists listened to Mendel's two groundbreaking lectures, but it would appear that they failed to understand his work. Later, he also carried on a correspondence with Carl Nägeli, one of the leading biologists of the time, but Nägeli too failed to appreciate Mendel's discoveries. At times, Mendel must have entertained doubts about his work, but not always: "My time will come," he reportedly told a friend, [13] Gustav von Niessl. [34]

During Mendel's lifetime, most biologists held the idea that all characteristics were passed to the next generation through blending inheritance, in which the traits from each parent are averaged. [35] [36] Instances of this phenomenon are now explained by the action of multiple genes with quantitative effects. Charles Darwin tried unsuccessfully to explain inheritance through a theory of pangenesis. It was not until the early 20th century that the importance of Mendel's ideas was realized. [26]

By 1900, research aimed at finding a successful theory of discontinuous inheritance rather than blending inheritance led to independent duplication of his work by Hugo de Vries and Carl Correns, and the rediscovery of Mendel's writings and laws. Both acknowledged Mendel's priority, and it is thought probable that de Vries did not understand the results he had found until after reading Mendel. [26] Though Erich von Tschermak was originally also credited with rediscovery, this is no longer accepted because he did not understand Mendel's laws. [37] Though de Vries later lost interest in Mendelism, other biologists started to establish modern genetics as a science. All three of these researchers, each from a different country, published their rediscovery of Mendel's work within a two-month span in the spring of 1900. [38]

Mendel's results were quickly replicated, and genetic linkage quickly worked out. Biologists flocked to the theory even though it was not yet applicable to many phenomena, it sought to give a genotypic understanding of heredity which they felt was lacking in previous studies of heredity, which had focused on phenotypic approaches. [39] Most prominent of these previous approaches was the biometric school of Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon, which was based heavily on statistical studies of phenotype variation. The strongest opposition to this school came from William Bateson, who perhaps did the most in the early days of publicising the benefits of Mendel's theory (the word "genetics", and much of the discipline's other terminology, originated with Bateson). This debate between the biometricians and the Mendelians was extremely vigorous in the first two decades of the 20th century, with the biometricians claiming statistical and mathematical rigor, [40] whereas the Mendelians claimed a better understanding of biology. [41] [42] Modern genetics shows that Mendelian heredity is in fact an inherently biological process, though not all genes of Mendel's experiments are yet understood. [43] [44]

In the end, the two approaches were combined, especially by work conducted by R. A. Fisher as early as 1918. The combination, in the 1930s and 1940s, of Mendelian genetics with Darwin's theory of natural selection resulted in the modern synthesis of evolutionary biology. [45] [46]

Other experiments

Mendel began his studies on heredity using mice. He was at St. Thomas's Abbey but his bishop did not like one of his friars studying animal sex, so Mendel switched to plants. [47] Mendel also bred bees in a bee house that was built for him, using bee hives that he designed. [48] He also studied astronomy and meteorology, [19] founding the 'Austrian Meteorological Society' in 1865. [17] The majority of his published works were related to meteorology. [17]

Mendel also experimented with hawkweed (Hieracium) [49] and honeybees. He published a report on his work with hawkweed, [50] a group of plants of great interest to scientists at the time because of their diversity. However, the results of Mendel's inheritance study in hawkweeds was unlike his results for peas the first generation was very variable and many of their offspring were identical to the maternal parent. In his correspondence with Carl Nägeli he discussed his results but was unable to explain them. [49] It was not appreciated until the end of the nineteenth century that many hawkweed species were apomictic, producing most of their seeds through an asexual process. [34] [51]

None of his results on bees survived, except for a passing mention in the reports of Moravian Apiculture Society. [52] All that is known definitely is that he used Cyprian and Carniolan bees, [53] which were particularly aggressive to the annoyance of other monks and visitors of the monastery such that he was asked to get rid of them. [54] Mendel, on the other hand, was fond of his bees, and referred to them as "my dearest little animals". [55]

He also described novel plant species, and these are denoted with the botanical author abbreviation "Mendel". [56]

In 1936, Ronald Fisher, a prominent statistician and population geneticist, reconstructed Mendel's experiments, analyzed results from the F2 (second filial) generation and found the ratio of dominant to recessive phenotypes (e.g. yellow versus green peas round versus wrinkled peas) to be implausibly and consistently too close to the expected ratio of 3 to 1. [57] [58] [59] Fisher asserted that "the data of most, if not all, of the experiments have been falsified so as to agree closely with Mendel's expectations," [57] Mendel's alleged observations, according to Fisher, were "abominable", "shocking", [60] and "cooked". [61]

Other scholars agree with Fisher that Mendel's various observations come uncomfortably close to Mendel's expectations. A. W. F. Edwards, [62] for instance, remarks: "One can applaud the lucky gambler but when he is lucky again tomorrow, and the next day, and the following day, one is entitled to become a little suspicious". Three other lines of evidence likewise lend support to the assertion that Mendel's results are indeed too good to be true. [63]

Fisher's analysis gave rise to the Mendelian paradox: Mendel's reported data are, statistically speaking, too good to be true, yet "everything we know about Mendel suggests that he was unlikely to engage in either deliberate fraud or in unconscious adjustment of his observations." [63] A number of writers have attempted to resolve this paradox.

One attempted explanation invokes confirmation bias. [64] Fisher accused Mendel's experiments as "biased strongly in the direction of agreement with expectation . to give the theory the benefit of doubt". [57] In his 2004 article, J.W. Porteous concluded that Mendel's observations were indeed implausible. [65] However, reproduction of the experiments has demonstrated that there is no real bias towards Mendel's data. [66]

Another attempt [63] to resolve the Mendelian paradox notes that a conflict may sometimes arise between the moral imperative of a bias-free recounting of one's factual observations and the even more important imperative of advancing scientific knowledge. Mendel might have felt compelled “to simplify his data in order to meet real, or feared, editorial objections.” [62] Such an action could be justified on moral grounds (and hence provide a resolution to the Mendelian paradox), since the alternative—refusing to comply—might have retarded the growth of scientific knowledge. Similarly, like so many other obscure innovators of science, [33] Mendel, a little known innovator of working-class background, had to “break through the cognitive paradigms and social prejudices of his audience. [62] If such a breakthrough “could be best achieved by deliberately omitting some observations from his report and adjusting others to make them more palatable to his audience, such actions could be justified on moral grounds.” [63]

Daniel L. Hartl and Daniel J. Fairbanks reject outright Fisher's statistical argument, suggesting that Fisher incorrectly interpreted Mendel's experiments. They find it likely that Mendel scored more than 10 progeny, and that the results matched the expectation. They conclude: "Fisher's allegation of deliberate falsification can finally be put to rest, because on closer analysis it has proved to be unsupported by convincing evidence." [60] [67] In 2008 Hartl and Fairbanks (with Allan Franklin and AWF Edwards) wrote a comprehensive book in which they concluded that there were no reasons to assert Mendel fabricated his results, nor that Fisher deliberately tried to diminish Mendel's legacy. [68] Reassessment of Fisher's statistical analysis, according to these authors, also disproves the notion of confirmation bias in Mendel's results. [69] [70]

ChaptersMultiple Choice QuestionsShort QuestionsLong Questions
1523Question No 05 Part (A)
1623Question No 06 Part (A)
1713Question No 07 Part (A)
1823Question No 08 Part (A)
1912Question No 09 Part (A)
2013Question No 06 Part (B)
2213Question No 08 Part (B)
2412Question No 09 Part (B)
2513Question No 05 Part (B)
2712Question No 07 Part (B)

Multiple Choice Questions: (17 Marks)

Chapter No 15,16,18,21 : 2 MCQs from these Chapters

Chapter No 17,19,20,22,23,24,25,26,27 : 1 MCQ from these Chapters

Short Questions: (44 Marks)

Question No 02: (Attempt any 8 out of 12 Short Questions) (16 Marks)

Chapter No 15: 3 Short Questions

Chapter No 16: 3 Short Questions

Chapter No 23: 2 Short Questions

Chapter No 26: 2 Short Questions

Chapter No 27: 2 Short Questions

Question No 03: (Attempt any 8 out of 12 Short Questions) (16 Marks)

Chapter No 17: 3 Short Questions

Chapter No 18: 3 Short Questions

Chapter No 22: 3 Short Questions

Chapter No 25: 3 Short Questions

Question No 04: (Attempt any 6 out of 09 Short Questions) (12 Marks)

Chapter No 19: 2 Short Questions

Chapter No 20: 3 Short Questions

Chapter No 21: 2 Short Questions

Chapter No 24: 2 Short Questions

Long Questions: (24 Marks)

(Attempt any 03 out of 05 Long Questions) 8 Marks for each Question

Question No 05: Part (A) from Chapter No 15 and Part (B) from Chapter No 25.

Question No 06: Part (A) from Chapter No 16 and Part (B) from Chapter No 20.

Question No 07: Part (A) from Chapter No 17 and Part (B) from Chapter No 27.

Question No 08: Part (A) from Chapter No 18 and Part (B) from Chapter No 22.

Question No 09: Part (A) from Chapter No 19 and Part (B) from Chapter No 24.

Follicular Phase

The follicular phase is the first phase of the ovarian cycle. It generally lasts about 12 to 14 days for a 28-day menstrual cycle. During this phase, several ovarian follicle s are stimulated to begin maturing, but usually only one — called the Graafian follicle — matures completely so it is ready to release an egg. The other maturing follicles stop growing and disintegrate. Follicular development occurs because of a rise in the blood level of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), which is secreted by the pituitary gland . The maturing follicle releases estrogen , the level of which rises throughout the follicular phase. You can see these and other changes in hormone levels that occur during the menstrual cycle in the following chart.

Figure 18.8.3 FSH and estrogen increase during the first half of the menstrual cycle. LH surges shortly before ovulation occurs due to the rise in estrogen.

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Paraneoplastic retinal degeneration

Grazyna Adamus , in Ocular Disease , 2010


Enolase plays a role in glycolysis ( Table 76.6 ). About 40% of retinopathy patients have anti-α-enolase autoantibodies, and half of seropositive patients are cancer survivors. 1,18 Anti-α-enolase autoantibodies can also be found in a number of inflammatory, degenerative, and neurologic diseases, and in healthy subjects ( Table 76.4 ). 45 Because of such a wide prevalence of antienolase autoantibodies, fine epitope maps were studied in human α-enolase to determine their role in pathogenicity. Epitope mapping revealed three epitopes within the residues 31–38 (FRAAVPSG), 176–183 (ANFREAMR), and 421–428 (AKFAGRNF) for all CAR autoantibodies tested. 46 However, 70% of CAR patients, particularly those with breast or bladder cancer, recognized a unique epitope sequence 56–63 (RYMGKGVS). 47 The epitope sequences are located in proximity to external loops of the enolase molecule: loop 1: 37–43, the catalytic site loop 2: 153–166 and loop 3: 251–276, the plasminogen-binding site. 45 Depending on specificity, anti-α-enolase autoantibodies may label several layers and cell types within the retina, whereas antirecoverin autoantibodies bind exclusively to rods and cones and to some bipolar cells ( Figure 76.2 ).

Why are people, and other animals (sometimes) nice?

This unit describes and explains how behavior is a function of the interaction between genetically inherited adaptations and learning through experience. Consider the following questions:

  • Why do animals behave as they do?: Define behavior, differentiate between "how" and "why" questions about behavior, and explain how natural selection shapes behavior, using lions and humans as examples. (pages 824-5)
  • How do genes and environment interact to produce behavior?: Differentiate between innate and learned behavior and describe how human behavior combines both genetic and environmental components. (pages 826-9)
  • What is the evolutionary basis for humans behaving nicely to others?: Describe and explain how kin selection and reciprocal altruism influence nice behaviors. (pages 835-6)


† Present address: Institute of Cancer Research, 123 Old Brompton Road, London SW7 3RP, UK.

Electronic supplementary material is available online at

Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.


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