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Bibliography - Biology

Bibliography - Biology


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Bibliography

What citation style to use for science

There are plenty of citation styles you can use for research papers but do you actually know which ones are used specifically in the science field? In order to ease your way into your paper, we compiled a list of the main citation styles used for science. Each style includes an explanation of its system, just like reference examples.


Welcome to the Department of Biology

The Department of Biology teaching and research emphases in cellular and molecular biology, developmental biology, ecology and evolution, human biology, marine biology, neuroscience and behavior, and bioinformatics offer students opportunities to learn and work with scientists who are making important contributions to knowledge in these areas. The University fosters collaboration among students, staff and faculty in Biology, Chemistry and Biochemistry, Human Physiology, Physics and Psychology. Four separate research institutes unite faculty from these departments with biological interests into shared lab space. Interested graduate applicants should view each Institute’s web site for an overview of research and for contacting specific faculty.

COVID-related student resources available at https:// coronavirus.uoregon.edu


Developmental Biology

Developmental Biology is the study of organisms’ life cycles from single cell to complex reproducing and aging multi-cellular organisms. It endeavours to explain phenomena such as: cellular differentiation (e.g. neurons vs. liver cells) and cellular aging, the development of gross morphology and anatomical structures (e.g. body shape and organs -eyes and limbs-), and the development of an organism as an integrated part of an eco-system (e.g. phenotypic plasticity). The philosophically relevant points, in addition to broader philosophy of science inquiries (e.g. confirmation and explanation) are those that have to do with the ontological status of biological kinds and with inter-level relations, specifically the integration of developmental biology with evolutionary biology and to a lesser extent, with ecology. Keeping this is in mind the subcategories within Developmental Biology can be grouped into three main themes: Evolution, Ecology and Ontology.

(Evolutionary-Developmental Biology, Developmental Constraints and Process Structuralism)

(Ecological Developmental Biology, Epigenetic Inheritance, Nature vs. Nurture and Innateness)

(Developmental Modularity, Developmental System Theory and Process Structuralism).

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General Editors:
David Bourget (Western Ontario)
David Chalmers (ANU, NYU)


3. Philosophy of Evolutionary Biology

Philosophy of biology can also be subdivided by the particular areas of biology with which it is concerned. Until recently, evolutionary biology has attracted the lion&rsquos share of philosophical attention. This work has sometimes been designed to support a general thesis in the philosophy of science, such as the &ldquosemantic view&rdquo or model-based view of theories (Beatty 1980 Lloyd 1988 Thompson 1988). But most of this work is concerned with conceptual problems that arise inside the theory itself, and the work often resembles theoretical biology as much as pure philosophy of science. For example, Elliott Sober&rsquos classic study The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical Focus (Sober 1984b) marks the point at which many philosophers became aware of the philosophy of biology. Sober analyzed the structure of population genetics via an analogy with Newtonian mechanics and the composition of forces, treating the actual change in gene frequencies over time as the result of several different &ldquoforces&rdquo, such as selection, random genetic drift, mutation, and migration. Several philosophers of biology have challenged this interpretation of evolutionary theory in favor of a &ldquostatistical&rdquo approach (Sterelny & Kitcher 1988 Matthen and Ariew 2002 Walsh, Lewens, and Ariew 2002), and this debate continues. Another instance of a conceptual problem in evolutionary theory concerns the nature of random genetic drift. How are selection and drift distinct (Beatty 1987)? We typically think of drift occurring when there is random fluctuation of gene frequencies, but selection in a changing environment can produce the very same pattern. Thus, some philosophers of biology have argued we must distinguish selection and drift as processes rather than just as patterns. One way to do this is through a distinction between indiscriminate and discriminate sampling processes (Millstein 2002 Brandon 2005 Millstein 2005). The question becomes whether the trait of interest is causally irrelevant or relevant to changes in gene frequencies. These examples of careful, methodological analysis of population genetics, the mathematical core of traditional evolutionary theory, continue to give rise to interesting results (Pigliucci and Kaplan 2006 Plutynski 2006 Okasha 2007 Sarkar 2011).

The intense philosophical interest in evolutionary theory in the 1980&rsquos can partly be explained by two controversies (Segerstråle 2000). First, there was a controversy over &ldquosociobiology&rdquo that was provoked by the publications of E.O. Wilson&rsquos eponymous textbook (Wilson 1975) and his Pulitzer prize winning popular book (Wilson 1978). One extremely important critique of this application of evolutionary biology to human social behavior came from Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin (Gould and Lewontin 1979). The debates over adaptationism turned out to involve a diffuse set of worries about whether evolution produces adaptations, the role of optimality models, and the methodology of evolutionary theory (Amundson 1994 Orzack and Sober 1994 Brandon and Rausher 1996 Godfrey-Smith 2001 Millstein 2007 Forber 2009 Potochnik 2009 Lloyd 2015). Philosophical work has helped to distinguish these strands in the debate and reduce the confusion seen in the heated and polemical biological literature for and against adaptationism (Orzack and Sober 2001). Second, there was the appearance of George Williams&rsquo Adaptation and Natural Selection (Williams 1966) and Richard Dawkins&rsquo The Selfish Gene (Dawkins 1976). They claim that the unit of selection is the individual Mendelian allele rather than the organism, group of organisms, or species. This created an explosion of early philosophical work on the &ldquounits of selection&rdquo question (Brandon and Burian 1984). The early debates concerned whether there was a determinate unit of selection and what criteria should be used for determining what it is in a given case (Hull 1980 Wimsatt 1980a, 1980b Brandon 1982 Sober & Lewontin 1984 Lloyd 1988 Sterelny & Kitcher 1988). As multi-level selection models and the Price equation appeared, close attention turned to how those models should be interpreted (Godfrey-Smith & Lewontin 1993 Godfrey-Smith & Kerr 2002 Lloyd 2005 Waters 2005 Okasha 2006 Birch 2017). For example, for any group selection model, is there an empirically equivalent individual selection model (similarly for genotypic and genic models)? If so, do they represent the very same causal structure? Is kin selection a form of group selection? Arguably, philosophers made a significant contribution to the rehabilitation of some forms of &ldquogroup selection&rdquo within evolutionary biology in the 1990s, following two decades of neglect or contempt (Sober and Wilson 1998).


Course Requirements

The Department of Biology offers both the B.A. and the B.S. degrees in Biology, and the B.S. degree in Neuroscience. To graduate from High Point University with these degrees, students must complete the following:

B.A. in Biology

TOTAL

128 credits

B.S. in Biology

TOTAL

128 credits

Requirements for the B.A. in Biology (45-46 credits)

BIO 1500/1501. Principles of Cell Biology (4)
BIO 2001. Principles of Genetics (3)
BIO 2002. Principles of Genetics Lab (1)
BIO 2500. Principles of Ecology, Evolution and Biodiversity (3)
BIO 2501. Principles of Ecology, Evolution and Biodiversity Lab (1)
CHM 1010/1011. General Chemistry I/Lab (3/1)
CHM 1020/1021. General Chemistry II/Lab (3/1)
MTH 1400. Pre-calculus (4)
BIO 4990. Senior Seminar (2)

Select One Course From the Following List*
BIO 3110/3110L. General Botany (4)
BIO 3120/3120L. Zoology (4)
BIO 3061/3061L. Integrated Human Physiology (4)
BIO 3071/3071L. Human Anatomy and Embryology (4)
BIO 4010/4010L. Animal Physiology (4)
BIO 4050/4050L. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (4)

Select Four Upper-Level Elective Courses from the Following List**

BCH 3220. Biochemistry I (3)
Any 3000- or 4000-level biology courses (12-16)

* The course selected from this list cannot be double-counted as an upper-level elective course.
** Two of the courses selected from this list must have a laboratory component.

Requirements for the B.S. in Biology (57-58 credits)

BIO 1500/1501. Principles of Cell Biology (4)
BIO 2001. Principles of Genetics (3)
BIO 2002. Principles of Genetics Lab (1)
BIO 2500. Principles of Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity (3)
BIO 2501. Principles of Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity Lab (1)
MTH 1410. Calculus I (4)
STS 2020. Introduction to Statistics (4) or
STS 2910 Introduction to Statistical Analysis with SAS Applications (4)
CHM 1010/1011. General Chemistry I/Lab (4)
CHM 1020/1021. General Chemistry II/Lab (4)
CHM 2510/2511. Organic Chemistry I/Lab (4)
CHM 2520-2521. Organic Chemistry II/Lab (4)
BIO 4990. Senior Seminar (2)

Additional courses for the
Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Concentration

Select One Course From the Following List*
BIO 3110/3110L. General Botany (4)
BIO 3120/3120L. Zoology (4)
BIO 3061/3061L. Integrated Human Physiology (4)
BIO 3071/3071L. Human Anatomy and Embryology (4)
BIO 4010/4010L. Animal Physiology (4)
BIO 4050/4050L. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (4)

Select Four Upper-Level Elective Courses from the
Following List**
BIO 3040. Microbiology (4)
BIO 3050. Advanced Genetics (4)
BIO 3061/3061 L. Integrated Human Physiology (4)
BIO 3071/3071 L. Human Anatomy and Embryology (4)
BIO 3080. Vertebrate natural History (4)
BIO 3110/3110 L. General Botany (4)
BIO 3120/3120 L. Zoology
BIO 3220. Parasitology (4)
BIO/GBS/ENV 3300. Global Change Ecology (4)
BIO/GBS/ENV 3450. The Hidden Face of Ecuador (4)
BIO 3600. Aquatic Biology (4)
BIO 4010. Animal Physiology (4)
BIO 4020. Ecological Plant Physiology (4)
BIO 4030. Developmental Biology (4)
BIO 4040. Ecology (4)
BIO 4050. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (4)
BIO 4090. Molecular Biology (4)

* The course selected from this list cannot be double-counted as an
upper-level elective course.
** At least two of the courses selected from this list must have a
laboratory component, and no more than one cross-listed BIO/GBS
course may count toward the major.

Additional courses for the
Molecular/Cell and Biotechnology Concentration

Select One Course From the Following List*
BIO 3110/3110L. General Botany (4)
BIO 3120/3120L. Zoology 4)
BIO 3061/3061L. Integrated Human Physiology (4)
BIO 3071/3071L. Human Anatomy and Embryology (4)
BIO 4010/4010L. Animal Physiology (4)
BIO 4050/4050L. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (4)
Select Four Upper-Level Elective Courses from the
Following List**
BIO 3000. Cell Biology (4)
BIO 3040. Microbiology (4)
BIO 3050. Advanced Genetics (4)
BIO 3110/3110 L. General Botany (4)
BIO 3210. Tools for Biotechnology (4)
BIO 4030. Developmental Biology (4)
BIO 4060. Immunology (4)
BIO 4065. Virology (4)
BIO 4090. Molecular Biology (4)
BCH 3220. Biochemistry I (3)

* The course selected from this list cannot be double-counted as an
upper-level elective course.
** At least two of the courses selected from this list must have a
laboratory component, and no more than one cross-listed BIO/GBS
course may count toward the major.)

Additional courses for the Health Science Concentration

Select One Course From the Following List*
BIO 3110/3110L. General Botany (4)
BIO 3120/3120L. Zoology (4)
BIO 3061/3061L. Integrated Human Physiology (4)
BIO 3071/3071L. Human Anatomy and Embryology (4)
BIO 4010/4010L. Animal Physiology (4)
BIO 4050/4050L. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (4)

Select Four Upper-Level Elective Courses from the
Following List**
BIO 3000. Cell Biology (4)
BIO 3030. Vertebrate Histology (4)
BIO 3040. Microbiology (4)
BIO 3050. Advanced Genetics (4)
BIO 3061/3061 L. Integrated Human Physiology (4)
BIO 3071/3071 L. Human Anatomy and Embryology (4)
BIO 3120/3120 L. Zoology (4)
BIO 3220. Parasitology (4)
BIO/GBS 3350. Emerging Infectious Diseases: A World
Perspective (4)
BIO 4010. Animal Physiology (4)
BIO 4030. Developmental Biology (4)
BIO 4050. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (4)
BIO 4060. Immunology (4)
BIO 4065. Virology (4)
BIO 4070. Endocrinology (4)
BIO 4090. Molecular Biology (4)
BCH 3220. Biochemistry I (3)

* The course selected from this list cannot be double-counted as an
upper-level elective course.
** At least two of the courses selected from this list must have a
laboratory component, and no more than one cross-listed BIO/GBS
course may count toward the major.

Requirements for the Minor in Biology (20 credits)

BIO 1500/1501. Principles of Cell Biology (4)
BIO 2001. Principles of Genetics (3)
BIO 2002. Principles of Genetics Lab (1)
BIO 2500. Principles of Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity (3)
BIO 2501. Principles of Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity Lab (1)

Select One Course from the Following List*

BIO 3110/3110 L. General Botany (4)
BIO 3120/3120 L. Zoology (4)
BIO 3061/3061 L. Integrated Human Physiology (4)
BIO 3071/3071 L. Human Anatomy and Embryology (4)
BIO 4010/4010 L. Animal Physiology (4)
BIO 4050/4050 L. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (4)

Select One Upper-Level Elective Course **

Any 3000- or 4000- level biology course (4)

*The course selected from the list cannot be double-jointed as an upper-level elective course

**This course must have a laboratory component.

Requirements for the B.S. in Neuroscience (58 credits)

Students will complete the following 58 credits within the major. Note that completion of MTH 1210 (pre-calculus) or the equivalent is also required.

Foundation Courses (40 credits):

BIO 1500/1501. Principles of Cell Biology/Lab (3/1)
BIO 2000. Introduction to Biological Principles and Literature II: Evolutionary and Ecological Processes (4)
CHM 1010/1011. General Chemistry I/Lab (3/1)
CHM 1020/1021. General Chemistry II/Lab (3/1)
PSY 2000. Introduction to Psychology (4)

BIO/PHS 3061/3061. Human Physiology/Lab (3/1)
CHM 2510/2011. Organic Chemistry I/Lab (4)
CHM 2520/2021. Organic Chemistry II/Lab (4)
NEU 3010. Principles of Cellular Neuroscience (4)
STS 2020. Introduction to Statistics or STS 2910. Introduction
to Statistical Analysis with SAS Applications or PSY 2100. Statistics for Psychology (4)

Upper-Level Elective Courses

Select one 3000- or 4000- level BIO Course. This course must have a lab component.

Choose 8 credits from the following list of courses

NEU 4200 Neurogenesis (4)
NEU 4210 Molecular Neuroscience (4)
PSY 3520 Sensation & Perception (4)**
PSY 4610 Drugs & Behavior (4)**
PSY 4620. Clinical Neuropsychology (4)**

**PSY 2600 is a prerequisite course.

Senior Capstone Experience (2 credits)

NEU 4250 Journal Club: Advanced Topics in Neuroscience (2)***

***Taught on a rotating basis by biology faculty. This is a capstone course with a flexible topic, dependent upon the expertise and interest of the professor. The course will include both written and oral presentation components, as well as discussion and critical analysis of primary literature.


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