In what forms do plants and animals excrete sulfur?

In what forms do plants and animals excrete sulfur?

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Sulfur is part of the amino acids cystein and methionin, plants take up sulfur in the form of $H_2S$. These organisms will also need a way to get rid of excess sulfur, how? In what compounds?
Judging by the smell of some farts, I guess $H_2SO_4$ plays a role, but I can't imagine that one get'S rid of all the sulfur this way.

Sulfur is $3^{rd}$ most abundant mineral element in the body. Carnivores obtain it from Cysteine and Methionine in the animal protein which converted in to Glutathione.
Excess of sulfur is stored into Glutathione or oxidised to sulfate by sulfite oxidase which is eventually eliminated by urine.

[1]: Nimni ME, Han B, Cordoba F (2007). "Are we getting enough sulfur in our diet?". Nutr Metab (Lond) 4 (1): 24. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-4-24

[2]: Wikipedia on Sulfur metabolism

AP Environmental Science : Biochemical Cycles

Which of the following steps is not part of the carbon cycle?

Transpiration concerns the process through which water is carried through plants from roots to small pores in leaves, where it evaporates into the atmosphere. Thus transpiration is not a part of the carbon cycle, which concerns the biochemical exchange of carbon.

Example Question #2 : Biochemical Cycles

All of the following are Carbon sinks in the Carbon Cycle except.

The Atmosphere is largely the source of Carbon in the Carbon cycle. Plants utilize photosynthesis to convert atmospheric Carbon Dioxide into Glucose. Animals consume this Glucose and store it in their bodies until they die. the Ocean hosts a large amount of dissolved Carbon Dioxide gas and has Calcium Carbonate as a storage place in oceanic organisms like coral.

Example Question #2 : Carbon Cycle

Which of these is a type of biogeochemical cycles?

All of these are biogeochemical cycles:

Carbon cycle - plants and animals consume carbon dioxide and release carbon dioxide during decomposition or respiration, then the carbon dioxide returns to the atmosphere.

Phosphorus cycle - similar to the carbon cycle, plants and animals consume phosphorous and release it during decomposition. Then the phosphorous returns to the ground and waterways by way of bacteria and processes such as mineralization.

Nitrogen cycle - this is the most complicated biogeochemical cycles. This is because it takes place in multiple situations, including: nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, and ammonification.

Hydraulic cycle - the water cycle. Water evaporates, wind moves air (and water), precipitation occurs.

Example Question #1 : Biochemical Cycles

Which of the following is the major reservoir of nitrogen in the nitrogen cycle?

Although all of the above are part of the nitrogen cycle, the major reservoir for nitrogen is the atmosphere. The atmosphere contains nitrogen gas which cannot be extracted by plants or animals from the atmosphere. From its reservoir in the atmosphere, nitrogen gas is combined with oxygen to form nitrate and carried to Earth dissolved in rain. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria produce ammonia. This is absorbed by plants and other producers and incorporated into biological molecules that are passed through the trophic levels. Nitrate and ammonia are released by excretion or by decomposer bacteria. Other bacteria convert these molecules back to atmoshperic nitrogen, completing the cycle.

Example Question #3 : Biochemical Cycles

With reference to the biogeochemical cycles, how do elements and matter flow in the environment?

From a source to a source

A source is an organism or physical body that releases a certain compound or element. Through energy dynamics or physical manipulations of the environment, it reaches the sink. The sink is the receiver of the element and can act as another source for a different organisms or physical body. This is how matter travels in the environment, from pairs of source to sink dynamics.

Example Question #4 : Biochemical Cycles

Why can't plants utilize atmospheric nitrogen for their metabolic processes?

Plants cannot absorb nitrogen unless it is in the form of nitrates

Plants do not need nitrogen for their metabolic processes

It must first be fixed by cyanobacteria into ammonia

Atmospheric nitrogen is poisonous to plants

It must first be fixed by cyanobacteria into ammonia

According to the principles of the Nitrogen cycle, plants can only absorb nitrogen in the form of ammonia. This is achieved by nitrogen-fixing bacteria that convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form usable by plants. Plants excrete nitrogen in the form of waste as nitrates which are absorbed by animals.

Example Question #1 : Phosphorus Cycle

The phosphorus cycle is fundamentally different from the nitrogen and sulfur cycles. How so?

Phosphorus does not enter the cycle from weathering of sediments and parent material.

Phosphorus is cycled back into the soil through precipitation.

The phosphorus cycle does not include a gaseous phase, resulting in no significant quantities of atmospheric phosphorus.

Phosphorus is not taken up by plants and is a strictly inorganic cycle.

Phosphorus is not fixed in the atmosphere by lightning.

The phosphorus cycle does not include a gaseous phase, resulting in no significant quantities of atmospheric phosphorus.

The phosphorus cycle does not contain an atmospheric phase, while both the sulfur and nitrogen cycles do.

Example Question #1 : Phosphorus Cycle

Which of the following is the major reservoir for phosphorus in the phosphorus cycle?

The reservoir of phosphorus in ecosystems is rock, where it is bound to oxygen in the form of phosphate. As phosphate-rich rocks are exposed and eroded, rainwater dissolves the phosphate. Dissolved phosphate is abosrbed through the roots of plants. Animals eat the plants and after they die decomposers return the phosphorus that remains in the dead bodies back to the soil and water. It may then be reincorporated into rock.

Example Question #1 : Phosphorus Cycle

Which biogeochemical cycle is the only one without an atmospheric component?

All of the other cycles have at least one atmospheric component in their systems. The carbon cycle incorporates carbon dioxide in the photosynthesis portion of its cycle. The sulfur cycle incorporates gaseous sulfur dioxide when it is released by volcanic eruptions. The water cycle has the condensation of clouds in the atmosphere and the precipitation of those clouds as well. The nitrogen cycle incorporates atmospheric nitrogen gas before it is fixed by cyanobacteria. Only the phosphorus cycle does not have a phosphorus containing compound in the atmosphere that is essential for life on Earth.

Example Question #3 : Biochemical Cycles

The hydrolytic cycle is driven by which of the following?

The water cycle remains in the form of water throughout the cycle. The major reservoir of water is the ocean. The water cycle is driven by solar energy which evaporates water, and by gravity, which draws water back to Earth in the form of precipitation from water vapor in the atmosphere.

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Biology Questions and Answers Form 2 - Biology Form Two Notes

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Biology Questions and Answers Form 2

KCSE Revision Questions and Answers

1. a) i) Define transport

ii) Explain the necessity of transport in plants and animals

b) i) Describe the structure and function of root hair

ii) State ways in which the root hairs are adapted to their functions

c) i) Compare the internal structure of a dicotyledonous root and a monocotyledonous root

ii) State the similarities and differences between a dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous root

iii) Compare the internal structure of a monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous stem

Monocotyledonous stem

i) Give the similarities and differences between a monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous stem

State the differences between the internal structure of a root and a stem.

c) i) Name the transport structures of a flowering plant

ii) State the ways in which xylem vessels are adapted to their function

a) i) Why do flowering plants need water?

ii) Describe the movement of water from the soil to the leaves of a tall plant

iii) Name the process by which mineral salts enter into a plant

i) Explain the forces that make water and mineral salts move through a plant

ii) Explain the uptake of mineral salts by plants

b) i) What is transpiration?

ii) Name the sites through which transpiration takes place in a plant

iii) State the importance of transpiration to plants

excess transpiration causes wilting

i) Explain the structural factors that affect the rate of transpiration in plants

ii) Explain the environmental factors that affect rate of transpiration in plants

iii) State the structural differences between xylem vessels and sieve tubes

iv) State the adaptations of plants which enable them to reduce water loss

v) State the factors that cause increase in the rate of transpiration from leaves

vi) Explain how drooping of leaves on a hot sunny day is advantageous to a plant

c) Explain how aquatic and terrestrial plants are adapted to deal with problems of transpiration

d) i) What is translocation

ii) Name the tissue which is responsible for translocation of manufactured food in flowering plants

iii) Name the processes that bring about the translocation of manufactured food

iv) Draw a labeled diagram to represent phloem tissue

ii) State the functions of the labbeled structures cytoplasmic strands

supply nutrients to sieve tube element

iii) name the compounds that are translocated in phloem

Describe an experiment you would carry out in order to demonstrate that phloem transports manufactured food substances in a plant

ii) Use the radio-active tracers

iii) Collecting exudate from stylets of aphids

e) Describe an experiment you would carry out to demonstrate that xylem transports water

2. a) i)List the components of animal transport systems

ii) Distinguish between closed and open circulatory systems

iii) What are the advantages of the closed circulatory system over open circulatory system?

iv) Distinguish between single circulatory system and double circulatory system Single circulatory

b) i) Describe the general layout of the transport system in mammals

ii) Describe the structure and function of the mammalian heart

iii) Explain how the mammalian heart is adapted to performing its functions

iv) Explain why blood leaving the lungs may not be fully oxygenated

e) Describe the structure and functions of the blood vessels

b) i) State the ways in which the composition of blood in the pulmonary arterioles differs from that in the pulmonary venules

ii) Give the reasons why pressure of blood is greater in the arterioles than I the veins of mammals

iii) Name the common heart diseases in humans

c) i) State the functions of mammalian blood

ii) Describe how mammalian blood components carry out their functions Plasma

Red blood cells (Erythrocytes)

White blood cells (leucocytes)

Blood platelets (thrombocytes)

iii) State the Ways in which the red blood cells are adapted to their functions

iv) State the structural differences between a red blood cell and a white blood cell.

v) State the functional differences between a red blood cell and a White blood cell

How does the heart increase blood flow to some parts of the body during exercise

Explain how oxygen and carbon Iv oxide are transported in the blood

Most carbon IV oxide is transported from tissues to lungs within the red blood cells and not in the blood plasma. Give the advantages of this mode of transport.

d) i) what is blood clotting?

ii) Name a protein, vitamin, an enzyme and a mineral element involved in blood clotting

iii) describe the blood clotting process

iv) State the role of blood clotting on wounds

v) Explain why blood flowing in blood vessels does not normally clot

iii. Explain the meaning of :

iii) What is the difference between rhesus positive and Rhesus negative blood samples?

vi) What is blood transfusion?

v) Under what conditions would blood transfusion be necessary in people?

vi) How can low blood volume be brought back to normal?

How may excessive bleeding result in death?

State the precautions that must be taken before blood transfusion

ii) Distinguish between natural and acquired immunity

iii) What are allergic reactions?

vi) How does an allergic reaction occur?

ii) State the role of vaccination against certain diseases

3. a) i) What is gaseous exchange?

ii) Why is gaseous exchange important to organisms?

b) i) name the structure used for gaseous exchange by plants

ii) Briefly describe the structure of stomata

iii) State the factors which affect stomatal opening

iv) Name the theories suggesting the mechanism of opening and closing of stomata

v) Describe the mechanism of opening and closing of stomata

i) What is the advantage of having stomata open during daytime and having them closed at night?

c) i) State the ways in which leaves of plants are adapted to gaseous exchange

ii) Describe how gaseous exchange takes place in terrestrial plants

iii) State the ways in which floating leaves of aquatic plants are adapted to gaseous exchange

iv) How is aerenchyma tissue adapted to its function?

v) Explain stomatal distribution in plants of different habitats

d) i) List the types of respiratory surfaces of animals

ii) State the characteristics of respiratory surfaces in animals

iii) Describe gaseous exchange in protozoa

e) i) Make a labeled drawing of a fish gill

ii) How is a fish gill adapted to its function?

iii) Discuss gaseous exchange in bony fish

iv) What is counter-flow system?

vi) What is the advantage of counter-flow system?

f) i) Describe the mechanism of gaseous exchange in terrestrial insects

ii) State how traceholes are adapted to gaseous exchange

g) i) What is breathing?

ii) Name the structures in humans that are used in gaseous exchange

iii) Describe the mechanism of gaseous exchange in a mammal

iv) Explain how mammalian lungs are adapted to gaseous exchange

v) Name the features of alveoli that adapt them to their function

vii) How is the trachea of a mammal suited to its function?

viii) State the advantages of breathing through the nose rather than through the mouth

ix) Give the conditions under which the carbon iv oxide level rises above normal in mammalian blood

x) Explain the physiological changes that occur in the body to lower the carbon iv oxide level back to normal when it rises

h) i)Describe the factors which control the rate of breathing in humans

ii) Name the respirator diseases

4. a) i) Define respiration

ii) Explain the significance of respiration in living organisms

iii) Where does respiration take place?

b) i) Draw and label a mitochondrion

ii) State the most important function of mitochondria

iii) Give the functions of the labeled parts

c) Explain the roles of enzymes in respiration

d) i) What is aerobic respiration

ii) Give a word equation for aerobic respiration

iii) What are the end products of aerobic respiration?

e) i) What is anaerobic respiration

ii) What are obligate anaerobes?

iii) What are facultative anaerobes?

iv) State the Word equation representing anaerobic respiration in plants

v) Name the end products of anaerobic respiration in plants

g) i) Give a word equation of anaerobic respiration in animals

Glucose —> lactic acid + energy

ii) Name the end products of respiration in animals when there is insufficient oxygen supply

iii) Why is there a high rate of lactic acid production during exercise?

iv) Why does lactic acid level reduce after exercise?

v) State why accumulation of lactic acid during vigorous exercise lead to an increase in heartbeat

State the economic importance of anaerobic respiration

h) i) What is respiratory quotient(RQ)?

RQ = volume of CO2 produced

volume of oxygen consumed

ii) Why are respiratory quotient important

iii) Name the respiratory substrates

iv) Why does anaerobic respiration of a given substrate yield a smaller amount of energy than aerobic respiration?

iv) Explain the disadvantages of anaerobic respiration

v) Mention the types of experiments carried out for respiration

5. a) i) Define the following terms

ii) Explain Why excretion is necessary in plants and animals

-products of excretion are usually harmful while some are toxic

- if allowed to accumulate in the cells they would destroy tissues and interfere with normal metabolism

- They are therefore removed through excretion

b) i) Describe how excretion takes place in green plants

ii) Why do plants lack complex excretory structures like those of animals?

ii) State the excretory products of plants and some of their uses to humans

c) i) Describe excretion in unicellular organisms

-examples are amoeba and paramecium

-They have to remove waste products such as carbon IV oxide and nitrogenous substances e. g urea and ammonia

- These diffuse from the body surface into the surrounding Water

- Diffusion is due to large surface area

ii) List excretory organs and products of mammals

d)i) Draw and label a mammalian skin

ii) Explain how the mammalian skin is adapted to its functions

the skin is made up of dermis and epidermis

e) What is the role of lungs in excretion?

f) State the functions of the liver

g) i) Draw a labeled diagram of mammalian nephrone

ii) Describe how the human kidney functions

iii) State the adaptations of proximal convoluted tubule to its function

iv) Name the common kidney diseases

6. a) i) Why is homeostatic control necessary?

ii) What is internal environment?

b) i) Why is constant body temperature maintained by mammals?

ii) Explain the advantage gained by possessing a constant body temperature

iii) How do mammals regulate body temperature?

iv) Why does body temperature of a healthy person rise up to 37 C on a hot humid day?

v) Name the structures in the human body that detect external temperature changes

vi) State the advantages that organisms with small surface area to volume ratio experience over those with larger

Explain why individuals with smaller sizes require more energy per unit body weight than those with larger sizes.

c) i) What is the meaning of osmoregulation?

ii) State the importance of osmoregulation

iii) State the ways by which desert mammals conserve water fewer glomeruli longer loop of Henle

iv) Explain why some desert animals excrete uric acid rather than Water

v) Explain why eating a meal with too much salt leads to production of a small volume of concentrated urine

vi) Explain how marine fish regulate their osmotic pressure

d) i) What is the biological significance of maintaining a relatively constant sugar level in a human body?

ii) Discuss the role of the following hormones in blood sugar control

e) Explain the part played by antidiuretic hormone in homeostasis

f) What is the role of blood clotting in homeostasis?

g) Describe the role of the following hormones in homeostasis

h) i) Distinguish between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus

ii) How can high blood sugar level in a person be controlled?

iii) Why does glucose not normally appear in urine even though it is filtered in the mammalian Bowman’s capsule?

iv) When is glycogen which is stored in the liver converted into glucose and released into the blood?

v) How would one find out from a sample of urine whether a person is suffering from diabetes mellitus?

Biology Questions and Answers Form 3 - Biology Form Three Notes

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KCSE Revision Questions and Answers

1. a) i) What is meant by the term binomial nomenclature?

ii) State briefly the general principles of classification of living organisms

b) State the main characteristics of the five kingdoms of organisms

ii. Protista(protoctista)

c) Describe the economic importance of:

d) State the main characteristics of the following division of kingdom plantae

e) Name sub-divisions of spermatophyte and state the characteristics of each class

i. Gymnospermae (cornifers)

ii. Angiospermae (flowering plants)

iii. Name the classes and state characteristics of angiospermae

iv)State the importance of plants

f) i) Give the general characteristics of phylum arthropoda

ii. State the characteristics of the following classes of arthropoda

iii) State the economic importance of insects

g) i) State the general characteristics of chordate

Give the characteristics of the following classes of chordate

a) i) What is a dichotomous key?

i. State the necessity of using a dichotomous key

ii. List the rules followed in constructing a dichotomous key

iv) Describe the procedure of using a dichotomous key. Make a list of major features of the characteristics to be identified

iv You are provided with a specimen kale leaf. Use the dichotomous key below to identify the taxonomic group to which the specimen belongs. Show the steps (number and letter) in the key that you followed to arrive at the identify of the specimen

2 a) Leaf parallel vein. Cynodon

b) Leaf net veined. Go to 3

3 a) Leaf with one lobe (simple Leaf). Go to 4

b) Leaf with many lobes (compound Leaf). Grevellea

4 a) Leaf Fleshy. Kalanchoa

b) Leaf not fleshy. Go to 5

5 a) Leaf petiole modified to form sheath. Go to 6

b) Leaf petiole not modified to form sheath. Brassica

6 a) Leaf purple. Tradescantia

v) You have been provided with four animals labeled K (mature adult housefly), L (mature adult grasshopper, M(maize flour beetle) and N(Worker termite) use the dichotomous key below to identify the specimens. Write down in the correct order, the steps (number and letter) in the key that you followed to arrive at your answer.

1 a) Animal with wings. Go to 2

b) Animal without wings. Go to 7

2 a) With two pairs of wings. Go to 3

b) With one pair of wings. Diptera

3 a) With membranous wings. Go to 4

b) Hind pair of membranous wings. Go to 6

4 a) With long abdomen . Odontata

b) Medium sized abdomen. Go to 5

5 a) Wings with colored scales. Lepidoptera

b) Wings without scales. Hymenoptera

6 a) Forewings hard and shell-like. Coleoptera

b) Forewings hard but not shell-like. Orthoptera

7 a) Body horizontally flattened. Isoptera

b) Body laterally flattened. Symphonopteria

Identify the orders of the various specimen as per the table below

Specimen Order Step followed

L- grasshopper Orthoptera 1a, 2a, 3b, 6b

M- beetle Coleoptera 1a, 2a, 3b, 6a

2 a) Define the following ecological terms

b) i) What are abiotic factors?

ii) Explain how abiotic factors affect living organisms

Rainfall (Water) or precipitation

Mineral salts (trace elements)

c) i) What are biotic factors?

ii) Give examples of biotic factors affecting ecosystems

d) Discuss how the various biotic factors affect living organisms

iv. Diseases and parasites

and association of organisms of different species where both benefit from the association i.e. there is mutual benefit

e)i) What is nitrogen cycle?

iii) Describe the nitrogen cycle

iii. Nitrogen in the atmosphere cannot be directly utilized by plants. State two ways by which this nitrogen is made available for plant use

f) i) Describe how energy flows from the sun through the various trophic levels in an ecosystem

Give the reasons for loss of energy from one trophic level to another in a food chain

Why are green plants referred to as primary producers in an ecosystem?

vi. Explain the following terms giving suitable examples

Account for the decrease of biomass in the successive trophic levels

h) i) Describe the three characteristics of a population growth

ii) Explain how the following methods are used to estimate population of organisms

Capture-recapture method

2. a) Describe the adaptations of plants to various habitats

b) 1) What is pollution?

ii) Explain the various human activities that have caused pollution

Causes and effects of air pollution

Control of air pollution

State the causes, effects and methods of controlling and prop roots for support water pollution

Control of water pollution

iv) State the causes /effects and control methods of soil pollution

Control of soil pollution

v) Define biological control give suitable examples

vi) What is eutrophication?

i) What are the effects of eutrophication?

vii) What are the effects of eutrophication?

c) Describe the symptoms, mode of transmission and control of cholera, typhoid, malaria and amoebic dysentery in humans

Amoebic dysentery (amoebiasis)

d) Discuss Ascaris lumbricoides under the following sub-headings

i. Mode of transmission

ii. Effects of parasite on the host

iv. Control and prevention

e) Discuss schistosoma under the following sub-headings

Control and prevention

3. a) i) What is reproduction?

ii) Why is reproduction important?

iii) Name the types of reproduction

b) i) What is cell division?

ii) What are chromosomes?

ii) Describe the five stages of mitosis

ii) State the significance of mitosis

ii) State the significance of meiosis

iii) Give a summary of the stages of meioeis

Second meiotic division

iv) Give the similarities between mitosis and meiosis

v) What are the differences between mitosis and meiosis?

d) i) What is asexual reproduction

ii) What is the significance of sexual reproduction in living organisms?

iii) State the advantages of sexual reproduction

iv) Give the disadvantages of sexual reproduction

e) i) What is asexual reproduction?

ii) State the advantages of asexual reproduction

iii) Give the disadvantages of asexual reproduction

iv) Explain how reproduction occurs by the following methods of asexual reproduction

ii) Draw a longitudinal section of a labeled diagram of a flower

iii) Give the functions of the parts of a flower

iv) What is inflorescence?

v) Explain the meaning of the following terms which describe flowers

vi) Explain the meaning of the following types of ovary

Superior Q ovary occurs above other floral parts on the receptacle Inferior (epigynous) Q other floral parts arise above ovary on the receptacle

g) i) What is pollination?

ii) Explain the types of pollination

iii) State the advantages of pollination

iv) List the agents of pollination

v) How are flowers adapted to wind and insect pollination?

Insect pollinated flowers (entomophilus)

Wind pollinated flower (anemophilus)

vi) State the Ways in which plants prevent self-pollination

vii) Give the characteristics that ensure cross pollination takes place in flowering plants

viii) State the advantages of cross pollination

h) i) What is fertilization?

ii) Describe how fertilization takes place in a flower

iii) What is double fertilization?

iv) Name the changes that Occur in a flower after fertilization

b) i) Distinguish between a fruit and a seed

ii) How is a seed formed?

iii) Draw a labeled diagram of a seed

iv) Describe the main parts of a seed

v) Draw a labeled diagram of a fruit

vi) How is a fruit formed?

vii) Explain the importance of fruits in the survival of plants

vii. Distinguish between parthenogenesis and parthenocarpy

iv) state the differences between a seed and a fruit

j. i) What is placentation?

ii) Explain the following types of placentation

Free central placentation

c) i) How are fruits grouped?

Multiple (compound) fruits

ii) What are succulent fruits?

iii) Give types of juicy fruits

iv) What are dry fruits?

v) What are dehiscent fruits?

vi) Give types of dehiscent fruits

vii) What are indehiscent fruits?

ii) Give main types of indehiscent fruits

d) i) What is seed and fruit dispersal?

ii) Why is dispersal of seeds and fruits necessary?

iii) Explain how seeds and fruits are adapted to various methods of dispersal

Adaptations for wind dispersal

Water dispersal seeds

Animal dispersal seeds

Self dispersal/explosive

5. a) i) Distinguish between external and internal fertilization in animals

ii) State the advantages and disadvantages of external fertilization

iii) State the advantages and disadvantages of internal fertilization

iii) Give a reason why it is necessary for frogs to lay many eggs

iv) Compare external and internal fertilization

b) i) Draw and label the human male reproductive system

ii) Describe how the mammalian male reproductive system is adapted to perform its functions

iii) How is the sperm adapted to perform its function?

c) i) Draw and label the human female reproductive system

ii) Describe how the various structures of the human female reproductive system are adapted to their function

Oviducts (Fallopian tube)

iii) Explain how the ovum is adapted to its function

iv) Explain the differences between sperm and ovum

d) i) Explain the process of fertilization

i) Explain the process of implantation

State the functions of umbilical cord

State the role of placenta

e) i) What is gestation period?

ii) Explain the functions of the membranes associated with placenta

iii) Explain the events that take place to facilitate parturition

iv) State the reasons why later in pregnancy the ovary will b e removed without disturbing the pregnancy

f) i) What are secondary sexual characteristics

ii) State the main secondary changes in

iii) Describe the role of hormones in secondary sexual characteristics in

Follicle stimulation hormone (FSH)

g) i) What is menstruation?

ii) Describe the role of hormones in the human menstrual cycle

iii) What is menopause?

h) Explain the symptoms, methods of transmitting and prevention (control) of the following sexually transmitted diseases

b) i) Differentiate growth in plants and animals

More differences between Plant Growth and Animal Growth

1. Growth continues throughout the life of the plant.
2. Here the growth involves increases in the number of parts.
3. Growth take place during definite seasons.
4. Growing pattern is distinct each species.
5. Plant possess well-defined growing regions.
6. A seedling does not resemble an adult plant.
7. A juvenile stage with distinct may be present in the life-history of a plant.
8. Growth is by addition of new parts ahead or around the older ones.

1. Growth takes place for definite periods before maturity.
2. Here it does not involve increase in the number of parts.
3. Each species has a distinct season for growth.
4. Growing pattern is absent.
5. They have no such defined growing regions.
6. The young one are identical to adults except in the body size and sexual maturity.
7. A juvenile stage with different morphology does not occur in higher animal.
8. Growth is diffused by all round increases in different organs of the body.

ii) List the processes involved in growth

iv) List the parameters used to measure growth

iv) Name the patterns of growth in organisms

c) i) Name the different types of growth curves

ii) Draw a sigmoid growth curve and explain its different phases/stages

- Slow growth rate at first

Organism adapting to the environment

- organisms already adapted

- first growth due to birth rate that is higher than death rate

C- Stationery phase (plateau)

- Birth rate equals death rate (equilibrium)

Lack of nutrients, accumulation of toxic waste products

- due to depletion of nutrients, accumulation of toxic wastes, lack of space

- some individuals old hence not reproducing

- death rate higher than birth rate

iii) Draw an intermittent curve and explain the various stages

- growth in in arthropods is intermittent(takes place during some time only because their hard cuticles (exoskeleton) does not expand to cause growth

- the cuticle must be shed off first to allow further growth

- the shedding is called ecdysis or moulting

- when moulting has taken place animal grows but growth stops when the exoskeleton hardens again

d) i) What is seed dormancy?

- A state where a viable seed is incapable of germinating when all conditions are favorable.

ii) State the biological importance of seed dormancy

- gives embryo time to reach maturity

- allows plant to survive adverse conditions

iii) State the factors which cause seed dormancy

- presence of abscisic acid/ABA/ presence of germination inhibitors

- embryo not fully developed

- absence of hormones/enzymes/inactivity of hormones/enzymes/gibberellins/cytokinins

- impermeability of seed coat

iv) Give the conditions necessary to break seed dormancy

- scarification/scratching to make seed coat impermeable

- vernalisation/cold treatment in some seeds like wheat

- burning/nicking/expose to heat e.g. wattle seeds

- destruction of germination inhibitors

e) i) What is seed germination?

- process by which a seed develops in a seedling

- ability of a seed to germinate

iii) Discuss the various conditions necessary for the germination of seeds

- medium for enzymatic activity

- hydrolysis of food into simpler substances

- oxygen is used for respiration/oxidation of food to release energy

Suitable (optimum) temperature

- activates enzymes involved in mobilization of food reserves

-breakdown and subsequent oxidation of food

- conservation of hydrolyzed food products in to new plant tissues

- only viable seed are able to germinate and grow

iv) Name and describe the types of germination

cotyledons are brought above the ground level during germination due to elongation of the bean seed that elongates to bring about epigeal germination

- the cotyledons remain below the surface during germination due to elongation of epicotyl e.g maize

vi) Account for the loss in dry weight of cotyledons in a germinating bean seed

vii) Describe the physiological changes that occur in a seed during germination

viii) Explain the biological significance of cotyledons being brought above the ground in epigeal germination

f) i) Distinguish between primary and secondary growth

ii) What are meristems

iii) State the characteristics of meristematic cells

iv) State the location and function of the following meristematic tissues

v) Describe primary growth

vi) Describe secondary growth in plants

vii) State the significance of secondary growth

g) i) Describe one method which can be used to measure the average growth rate of a single leaf of a plant

- chose/identify a young leaf (just unfolded)

- use the same leaf throughout

- measure (total) length of (whole) leaf

- repeat at regular intervals until no more change occurs/constant length

- average rate of growth is equal to total increase in length divided by the period taken to achieve full length

Average rate of growth = total increase in length divide by period taken to achieve full length

- choose/identify a young leaf(just unfolded)

- use the same leaf throughout

- trace the outline on a graph paper and work out the area

- repeat at regular intervals until regular area

- average rate of growth equals to total increase in area divided by the period of time taken to achieve full area

Average rate of growth = total increase in area divide by period of time taken to achieve final area

i) Describe how the growth of a root can be determined

- fine thread, marking ink, germinating bean seedlings, blotting paper, ruler marked in millimeters, pins, cork, a boiling tube and moist cotton wool

- dry seedlings using blotting paper

- place inside against the ruler marked in mm

- dip the fine thread in waterproof ink

- mark the radicle at equal intervals

- pin the seedling to the cork

- suspend the seedling into the boiling tube containing moist cotton wool

- allow the seedling to grow for two days/some time observe the intervals with the marks

- record your observations the Widest intervals are found in the region just behind the tip indicating/showing region of greatest growth

iii) A boy hammered a nail in the bark of a tree at a height of 1.5 metres above the ground Four years later, the nail was found at the same height although the tree had grown 3 meters taller. Explain the above observation

The nail was hammered at a point where vertical growth had stopped/further growth was confined to increase in width/diameter.

Vertical growth is confined to tips/apex/vertical apical meristem

h) i) Describe the role of hormones in growth and development of plants

Cytokinnins (Kinnins/Kinnetin/Zeatin)

- stabilizes protein and chlorophyll

- promotes root formation on a shoot

- low concentration encourages leaf senses

- normal concentration increases cell enlargement in leaves

- stimulates lateral bud development

Ethylene (ethynel C2H4)

- accelerates ripening in fruits

- encourages fruit fall/leaf fall

- induces thickening in stern/inhibits stem elongation

- promotes flowering (in pineapples)

- promotes germination in certain seeds

Abscisic acid (ABA) abscisin hormone/dormin)

- encourages fruit/leaf fall

- high concentration causes closing of stomata

- heals wounds by callous formation

ii) State the applications of plant hormones in agriculture

- induce root growth in stem cuttings

- encourage sprouting of lateral buds

- accelerate ripening of fruits

iii) Explain apical dominance

- a phenomenon whereby production of auxins by a growing apical bud of a shoot inhibits growth of lateral buds

- this inhibition is due to high concentration of auxins (indoleacetic acid/IAA) in apical bud

- removal of terminal/apical bud causes development and sprouting of several buds which later develop into branches

- applied in pruning coffee, tea and hedges

iv) Describe the role of hormones in the growth and development of animal

somatotrophin (growth hormones)

- overproduction causes gigantism

- underproduction causes dwarfism

- promotes growth and metamorphosis

- underproduction leads to a child becoming a cretin (mentally retarted)

- growth of male reproductive organs

- growth of female reproductive organs

t) i) What is metamorphosis?

- change in form during which there are changes in structure and function in body of organism

- prepares organism for life in a different habitat

ii) Explain complete metamorphosis

radical changes in the body during the life cycle of an organism

called holometabolous development

example is egg larva pupa adult (imago)

occurs in animals such as butterfly and bee

iii) What is the significance of each of the four stages in complete metamorphosis?

- larva is quite different from adult

- larva sheds its cuticle (exoskeleton) several times to emerge as pupa

- dispersal stage avoids overcrowding

- enclosed in a case called puparium (cocoon)

- organ formation takes place

- reproductive stage of the life cycle

iv) Describe incomplete metamorphosis

- called hemimetabolous development

- eggs develop into nymphs which develop into adults

- nymph resembles adult but are sexually immature

- a nymph moults several times as some parts develop before it becomes an adult

- stage of development between one moult and another is called instar

- occurs in insects such as locust and cockroach

v) Name the hormones that control metamorphosis in insects

- brain hormone responsible for moulting because it simulates production of ecdyson (moulting hormone)

- ecdysone(moulting hormone) causes moulting

- juvenile hormone causes moulting in larvae

vi) State the advantages of metamorphosis in the life of insects

- the adult and larvae exploit different niches

- pupa cam survive adverse pupa can survive adverse conditions eg-feeding stage

- dispersal prevents overcrowding

Plant Defenses Against Pathogens

Plants defend against pathogens with barriers, secondary metabolites, and antimicrobial compounds.

Learning Objectives

Identify plant defense responses to pathogens

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • Many plants have impenetrable barriers, such as bark and waxy cuticles, or adaptations, such as thorns and spines, to protect them from pathogens.
  • If pathogens breach a plant’s barriers, the plant can respond with secondary metabolites, which are often toxic compounds, such as glycol cyanide, that may harm the pathogen.
  • Plants produce antimicrobial chemicals, antimicrobial proteins, and antimicrobial enzymes that are able to fight the pathogens.

Defense Responses Against Pathogens

Pathogens are agents of disease. These infectious microorganisms, such as fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, live off of the plant and damage its tissues. Plants have developed a variety of strategies to discourage or kill attackers.

The first line of defense in plants is an intact and impenetrable barrier composed of bark and a waxy cuticle. Both protect plants against pathogens.

A plant’s exterior protection can be compromised by mechanical damage, which may provide an entry point for pathogens. If the first line of defense is breached, the plant must resort to a different set of defense mechanisms, such as toxins and enzymes. Secondary metabolites are compounds that are not directly derived from photosynthesis and are not necessary for respiration or plant growth and development. Many metabolites are toxic and can even be lethal to animals that ingest them.

Additionally, plants have a variety of inducible defenses in the presence of pathogens. In addition to secondary metabolites, plants produce antimicrobial chemicals, antimicrobial proteins, and antimicrobial enzymes that are able to fight the pathogens. Plants can close stomata to prevent the pathogen from entering the plant. A hypersensitive response, in which the plant experiences rapid cell death to fight off the infection, can be initiated by the plant or it may use endophyte assistance: the roots release chemicals that attract other beneficial bacteria to fight the infection.

Mechanical wounding and predator attacks activate defense and protective mechanisms in the damaged tissue and elicit long-distancing signaling or activation of defense and protective mechanisms at sites farther from the injury location. Some defense reactions occur within minutes, while others may take several hours.

Importance of the Sulfur Cycle

Sulfur is a very important element for living beings just like Carbon. It has a huge importance in human life as it is present in many molecules. This essential element (S) is found in many life forms. Many of compounds and molecules that we need for life are based on this element. It is one key component of various organic compounds. Here are some of the importance of this element.

  1. Plants use sulfur to make chlorophyll, proteins, enzymes and vitamins.
  2. Sulfur is found in Protein and Amino acids like Cysteine.
  3. It also improves the soil and helps to control its sodium content.
  4. This essential element works as a conditioner for soil.
  5. It improves the overall yield of crops, fruits, and vegetables.

Sulphur and its compounds are very important for all living beings including humans, plants, and animals. Plants also require it in very less amount but it is very important for them.

In what forms do plants and animals excrete sulfur? - Biology

Date: June 22, 2015. Updated September 04, 2015. Disclaimer The information presented here is for informative and educational purposes only and is not intended as curative or prescriptive advice. The statements of this web-site have not been evaluated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Nothing stated here should be considered as medical advice for dealing with a given problem, or to diagnose / treat / prevent / cure any disease.

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Yellow mineral sulfur is inorganic & used in industry. Soil bacteria can covert it into organic sulfur.White MSM organic flake crystal sulfur is absorbed by humansOrganic MSM powder sulfur may not be readily absorbed

"Sick soils mean sick plants, sick animals and sick people."
[From Congressional Document No. 264 in year June 5,1936]

UPDATE June 22, 2015: We need to get an essential amount of sulfur everyday from both plants sources and organic sulfur supplements. If we do not, then we are prone to chronic diseases and disorders and a lesser quality of life!

Bergstrom Nutrition, in special communication with research-author Sorochan, "points out that although Bergstrom Nutrition sells a pure product, optiMSM, to distributors unfortunately, they do not control how distributors of their wholesale product, OptiMSM, refer to their material nor how resellers package optiMSM." Refer to 'Best Buy MSM' below for more information.

If you have a sore back or joints, losing your hair or have itchy skin, organic sulfur may help you. Get more information below!

Sulfur [ also sulphur ] is vital to life! It is a nonmetallic element that is expressed as organic sulfur [OS], and most recently as [MSM], short for methylsulfonylmethane or DMSO2, a derivative of DMSO or Dimethyl Sulfoxide. DMSO is derived from basic cellulose or tree lignan. The lignan from the pine tree is distilled to form DMSO, a plant derivative.

DMSO, a waste by-product of the pulp and paper industry, was first introduced as a therapy to the scientific community in 1963 by a research team headed by Stanley W. Jacob, MD. 29

Sulfur is an essential element in the life processes of all living things, including microorganisms, higher plants, animals and man. It is an important part of the proteins [ amino acids ] needed to sustain life in all biological organisms. However, only green plants and algae can make and store the sulfur they need, while living animals and people cannot. We must consume sufficient quantities of organic sulfur from plants on a daily basis, as unused sulfur is excreted every 12 hours. Back to top

What is MSM? MSM is a white, odorless, slightly bitter tasting crystalline substance it is readily soluble in water and is a ligand or chemical binder. FDA notice that Bergstrom Nutrition MSM is GRAS MSM is an organic form of the element sulfur that can be easily absorbed and utilized by the body.

There is controversy in the MSM industry about the question of whether methylsulfonylmethane [ also known as dimethyl sulfone or MSM ] is a "natural" or "synthetic" product. In some ingredient directories, MSM is listed as either natural or synthetic. 33 This is explained in the summary below:

“In summary, nature does make MSM. However, the amount of MSM found in nature in cells as a source is on a scale so small that the only way to produce commercial quantities for human or veterinarian use is to rely on the manufacturing methods developed by chemical engineers. The process nature uses to produce MSM is rather similar to how humans produce it commercially. But MSM is not "natural," rather it is a synthetic product. The confusion in qualifying the source of MSM as "natural" or "synthetic" comes from the fact that MSM is identical in structure whether it comes from the factory or is found in nature.“ 32

Although MSM can be made commercially from fossil oil or from plants, it is plant made MSM that is more bioavailable and useful to humans than the synthetic fossil oil form.

Most commercially produced MSM isn’t made by phytoplankton instead, it’s the product of chemical industries and manufactured from petroleum waste and/or methane gas.

The MSM source for MSM supplements is often lignin from pine trees. Lignan is a molecule in plants that is part of a plant's cell wall. The pine tree lignan is an ideal source for a good MSM product. Back to top

So . where is sulfur found?: The ultimate source of sulfur is volcanic rock, mainly basalt, spewed up from the earth’s core during volcanic eruptions. [ Diagram on right illustrates many sources of sulfur or the sulfur cycle. ] Sulfur in soil exists in inorganic and organic form. Plants convert sulfur in the soil into a useable form and store it. The form of sulfur taken up by plants is sulfate. Sulfur from all sources must either be in the sulfate form or be converted to the sulfate form before it can be used by plants. 30 For information on how nature makes sulfur go to: nature makes sulfur

Ocean plankton releases sulfur compounds which rise into the ozone [air] where ultra-violet light makes MSM and DMSO. DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide, is a precursor to MSM. MSM returns to the surface of the earth in rain. Plants concentrate MSM and return it to the earth and the sea. Evaporation into the air results in their return to the earth.

The sulfur video explains the diagram above: Sulfur cycle Back to top

Sulfur is found in all plants and living things, including all cells of the human body. Plants can synthesize organic sulfur from sulfur in the soil but humans cannot.

  • Essential plant food for production of protein.
  • Promotes activity and development of enzymes and vitamins.
  • Helps in chlorophyll formation.
  • Improves root growth and seed production.
  • Helps with vigorous plant growth and resistance to cold.
  • Source: Plant Nutrients

We get our sulfur needs from plants. MSM is extremely rare in most modern western diets. Organic sulfur [Methylsulfonylmethane] is present in meat, fish, eggs, various fresh fruits and vegetables [garlic, inions] but rapidly deteriorates from almost any type of food processing, including cooking, in a very short time. Even plants harvested immediately begin to lose their sulfur [MSM] content and much is lost by the time the meats, vegetables and fruits get to the grocery counters. Such sulfur loss makes most of us deficient in sulfur. 34

MSM is an important organic sulfur and hot new dietary supplement. Sulfur is a vital element to life and current research points to methylsulfonylmethane as the most important source of organic sulfur for the body. Fortunately, organic sulfur is found naturally in all plant foods that are grown on soils although depleted soils provide less sulfur. 1 Sulfur content is at its highest when food is fresh but it is driven out of all foods, even with moderate processing. MSM is present in most green plant food stuffs and certain algae, meats, fish, a variety of fruits, vegetables, and grains in small amounts. Back to top

Why is sulfur a critical human need? Because sulfur has been recognized by scientists as essential to life! Organic sulfur is an essential ingredient in igniting the functions of many body processes! Essential means that every cell in your body needs sulfur and you cannot live without it. It is just as important as the air we breath and the water we drink. Sulfur is a nutrient essential in maintaining the body, much like vitamin D is essential to prevent rickets and vitamin C is essential to prevent scurvy. We need to ingest it every day.

That sulfur is an essential nutrient is overlooked and ignored by almost everyone. Try explaining the importance of sulfur to the man on the street and you get a blank look! Sulfur? What are you talking about? I have never heard of this before. It is as though the mention of sulfur paralyzes the uninformed.

Organic sulfur is essential because humans cannot make it and cannot store it. Sulfur is a critical human need because the long time evolutionary supply came from eating plants that absorbed sulfur from the soil, stored it and then used it. Unfortunately, in the process of evolution, animals and humans could not make sulfur and had to eat plants and animals to get organic sulfur.

Modern farming practices destroy the ability of crop plants to absorb sulfur from the soil. Today plants can absorb only trace amounts of sulfur from the soil. Hence, all plant crops, grains, fruits, nuts and vegetables have only small traces of organic sulfur.

Another important feature about sulfur is that plants [including vegetables] begin losing their organic sulfur immediately when harvested, stored, cooked or processed. Thus, we need to get ample amounts of organic sulfur from good supplements. Now the rest of the information about sulfur should begin to make more sense. Back to top

Reported Benefits for organic sulfur [MSM]: The body produces hundreds of compounds that help body functions. Here are just a few of the ways organic sulfur can help us. [incomplete] 2, 9, 10, 11, 15, 21, 25, 26, 28, 29, 31, 33, 34, 36, 40, 42, 43

    1. Sulfur heals.
    2. bonds with vitamin C to make collagen.
    3. increases enzyme production in body glands.
    4. increases tissue flexibility like skin stretching.
    5. aids healthy skin by stimulating synthesis of proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid
    6. increases blood circulation.
    7. reduces muscle inflammation and soreness. MSM is a muscle relaxant.
    8. promotes healthy growth of hair and fingernails.
    9. detoxifies body by eliminating toxins and free radicals from body.
    10. minimizes allergies.
    11. has cancer fighting properties causing aerobic [oxygen] environment.
    12. helps reverse osteoporosis.
    13. helps reverse Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.
    14. helps the body properly regulate insulin production [diabetes control]
    15. reduces hypoglycemia in the body.
    16. helps alleviate chronic headaches.
    17. helps reduce diverticulitis.
    18. helps alleviate PMS
    19. eases cramps, headaches and nausea during the monthly cycle.
    20. promotes better kidney function, thereby alleviates water retention.
    21. delivers essential omega-3s throughout the body.
    22. helps the body to produce vitamin B-12.
    23. may help reverse autism.
    24. bolsters immune system, increases resistance to illnesses & diseases.
    25. helps make strong joints.
    26. reduces chronic pain.
    27. reduces chronic fatigue.
    28. helps sunlight synthesize vitamin D-3 sulfate in skin that is water soluble.
    29. protects against ionizing radiation
    30. helps relieve physical stress and speeds exercise recovery
    31. helps macular degeneration & glaucoma
    32. helps cleanse the colon.
    33. helps relieve varicose veins
    34. helps normalize blood pH.
    35. bonds with vitamins and minerals to form new compounds
    36. helps regulate cholesterol
    37. crosses the Brain Blood Barrier and repairs oxidative damage to neurons and tissues.

Sulfur deficiency is now linked to many illnesses, disorders and diseases for which medical science has no answers. Unfortunately researchers look in the wrong places except sulfur to fix health problems. 7

It was Stanley Jacob and Robert Herschler 13 who brought attention to sulfur being an essential nutrient for all animals and humans. They studied over 18,000 patients over 20 years, treating them with organic sulfur. They reported how MSM was found to significantly decrease the discomfort associated with arthritis, back pain, headaches, athletic injuries, carpal tunnel syndrome and a myriad of autoimmune diseases such as scleroderma, lupus and fibromyalgia. 29 Back to top

Link between sulfur in soil and chronic diseases: There is a link between using petro-chemical fertilizers, the sulfur content in the soil and today’s epidemic of diseases.

There is a strong link between sulfur depleted soils and chronic diseases in the United States and other countries. In the United States, Oregon and Hawaii, two states with significant volcanic activity [soils rich in sulfur], have among the lowest obesity rates in the country. By contrast, the highest obesity rates are found in the midwest and in southern farm country: the epicenter of the modern agricultural practices (mega-farms) that lead to sulfur depletion in the soil. How did this happen?

It began when Petro-chemical fertilizers were created in the 1900's to replace manure as fertilizer and to create a cash “crop” for the petro-chemical industry. But these fossil fertilizers were not applied extensively until 1954, when fossil fertilizers were MANDATED by the US Government. [ USDA graph on the left illustrates this nicely ] Since 1954 when the use of chemical fertilizers apparently broke the Sulfur cycle 21 , the rate of diseases and disorders in the US has increased by approximately 4,000% [percent] with a resultant decline in health, mental acuity and quality of life.

The graph on the right illustrates the link between the decline of trace minerals and diseases on the rise. Graph on the right, projected by Joseph Mercola and August Dunning, show the prevalence of chronic diseases from 1900 to 2020 being linked to use of fossil oil fertilizer, Monsanto's pesticide Roundup that contains glyphosate and GMO seed use. 47 Diseases that never seemed to exist in our Grandparents time now accelerate at an unprecedented rate and the quality of our food has greatly diminished. Chemical fertilizers disabled the sulfur from being absorbed by crop plants.

Another country with link between sulfur and health is Iceland. Icelanders’ good health lies in the string of volcanoes that make up the backbone of the island, which sits atop the mid-Atlantic ridge crest. Food is grown on sulfur rich soil. 33

Finland did do something about chemical fertilizers depleting crop soil. When, in 1985, Finland became alarmed over the increasing obscene disease rate of its population, they banned all use of chemical fertilizers fearing the levels of cadmium, yet totally unaware of the sulfur connection. Since doing so, they have become the leading supplier of organically grown foods in Europe. They have also seen their disease rates drop to one tenth of their 1985 levels. Interestingly enough, in 1985, the U.S. was at the same disease level as Finland. 21 Back to top

Biology of Sulfur [MSM]: ORGANIC SULFUR [MSM] is unstable and bonds with other substances, including moisture. It is therefore carried away when dehydration occurs. Sulfur as a sulfate is found in proteins and cofactors.

Gastrointestinal absorption of sulfate can occur in the stomach, small intestine, and colon Sulfate that is not absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract passes to the large intestine and colon, where it is either excreted in the feces, reabsorbed, or reduced by anaerobic bacteria to metabolites, such as hydrogen sulfide.

Here is the technical aspect of sulfur in the human body:

"Almost all of the sulfur containing compounds of the body are formed from the sulfur atom of methionine." 48

Sulfate is produced in the body from the transsulfuration of methionine to cysteine, followed by the oxidation of cysteine to pyruvate and inorganic sulfate. These processes occur as a result of protein turnover, as well as from degradation of excess protein-derived methionine or cysteine. Inorganic sulfate also results from the metabolism of several organic and inorganic sulfur compounds present in food and water. Glutathione, an important antioxidant compound, is one of the more studied non-protein organic sources of sulfate in the diet. 44

There are hundreds of sulfur-containing compounds in the human body, and the body synthesizes all of them, with the exception of the vitamins thiamin and biotin. Precursors include sulfate obtained from dietary intake and ingestion of the indispensable amino acids methionine and cysteine. One of the important roles for sulfate is in the biosynthesis of 3′- phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphosulfate (PAPS). Inorganic sulfate is required along with adenosine triphosphate. PAPS, also known as active sulfate, is used in the biosynthesis of many essential body compounds, some of which are not absorbed intact when present in foods. Examples of sulfate compounds biosynthesized using 3′-Phosphoadenosine-5′-Phosphosulfate include: • Chondroitin sulfate, • Dermatan sulfate, • Keratan sulfate, • Heparan sulfate, • Cerebroside sulfate, • Tyrosine-o-sulfate, • Taurolithocholate sulfate (bile salt) and • Estrone 3-sulfate. 44

And here is the lighter aspect of sulfur working in the body:

Sulfur has a unique action on body tissues. It decreases the pressure inside the cell. In removing fluids and toxins, sulfur affects the cell membrane. Sulfur is present in all cells and forms sulfate compounds with sodium, potassium, magnesium, and selenium. Organic sulfur, in addition to eliminating heavy metals, regenerates, repairs and rebuilds all the cells in the body. 35

The sulfur in MSM makes cell walls permeable, allowing water and nutrients to freely flow into cells and allowing wastes and toxins to properly flow out. The body uses sulfur [MSM] along with Vitamin C to create new, healthy cells. Sulfur so provides the flexible bond between the cells as well as bonding with vitamins, minerals and amino acids to form essential metabolic enzymes.

Sulfur has a vital relationship with protein, since sulfur is found in the amino acids methionine, cystine, and cysteine. Thus, these amino acids are known as the sulfur bearing amino acids which are considered the building blocks of protein. The sulfur-bearing amino acid methionine is absolutely essential to health! This means it must be supplied by live food, or the food supplement MSM. A lack of proper protein in our diet, therefore means a lack of the vital organic sulfur necessary for good health. Proteins contain sulfur, while carbohydrates and fats do not.

Sulfur bonds with vitamin C and other co-factors to synthesize collagen. This is the glue connecting tissues and bones. Sulfur operates as a synthesizer and activator with the B vitamins, thiamin, Vitamin C, biotin, and pantothenic acid, all of which are needed for metabolism and healthy nerves. Sulfur plays an important part in tissue breathing, the process whereby oxygen and other substances are used to build cells and release energy. Sulfur also helps to maintain overall body balance between acidity and alkalinity, and works importantly with the liver to excrete bile. 25

Organic sulfur crystals are important because sulfur enables the transport of oxygen across cell membranes, and oxygen is necessary for healthy cellular regeneration for humans. This means that since our bodies lack sulfur…our cells are not regenerating the way they should be. When our bodies have enough sulfur and the transport of oxygen is taking place fully it allows us to feel our best because our cells are regenerating efficiently. This process is a primary function of organic sulfur.

If your cells cannot regenerate to the best of their ability it weakens our immune system and puts our health at risk. You can also see the difference in your skin as aging attributes will be visible such as wrinkling and sagging of the skin. Sulfur deficiency can be reversed and cells will repair and be in good health. 6

The body forms over 150 large compounds with sulfur. Although sulfur has many silent functions, it's most important role is working with vitamin C to form collagen, the protein found in connective tissue in our bodies [ vitamin C deficiency causes scurvy ]. Since sulfur deficiency does not cause any recognizable link problems, it is has been assumed as not essential and overlooked. But this thinking is now being questioned! New research finds sulfur links to many health problems.

Seneff points out that elemental organic sulfur is essential in the creation of two very essential amino acids – methionine and cysteine. This is critically important information because these two amino acids are precursor links to the production and synthesis of 10 all important hormones and chemicals such as adenisone triphosphate (ATP) – which in turn regulates the overall health and well being [ homeostasis ] of the human body. 33

Skeletal muscle cells and fat cells break down glucose in the presence of oxygen in their mitochondria, and in the process they produce ATP, the basic energy of all cells. A glucose transporter called GLUT4 is present in the cytoplasm of muscle cells, and it migrates to the cell membrane upon stimulation by insulin. GLUT4 essentially acts as a key that unlocks the door, letting glucose into the cell, but, like a key, it only works when it’s inserted in the membrane [by sulfur]. 33

Sulfur deficiency causes the liver to shift from producing cholesterol sulfate to producing arginine [ and subsequently nitric oxide ]. This leaves the intestines and muscle cells vulnerable to oxidation damage, which can explain both the intestinal inflammation and the muscle wasting associated with Crohn’s disease. 33

Sulfur reacts with radioactive mineral isotopes, turning them into harmless sulfates. This reaction occurs naturally because of the electrons that are available in sulfur's atomic structure. 18, 43

    1. Vitamins, minerals and proteins work as a team. Nutrients need each other as helpers [co-factors] to function properly. When one co-factor is missing, then a body process slows down and sputters or stops and the body begins to send signals [ inflammation, pain, headache ] that it is not working properly. We do not know all the co-factors for each nutrient at this time.
    2. It takes several days to months for a nutrient to kick in and begin healing the body.

The body uses what sulfur it needs, and after 12 hours, will flush out any excess amounts. Back to top

Vitamin D: Upon exposure to the sun, the skin synthesizes vitamin D 3 sulfate, a form of vitamin D that, unlike unsulfated vitamin D 3, is water soluble. As a consequence, it can travel freely in the blood stream rather than encapsulated inside LDL [ the so-called “bad” cholesterol ] for transport. The form of vitamin D that is present in both human milk and raw cow’s milk is vitamin D3 sulfate [ pasteurization destroys it in cow’s milk ]. 33

Cholesterol: Cholesterol sulfate is also synthesized in the skin, where it forms a crucial part of the barrier that keeps out harmful bacteria and other microorganisms such as fungi. Cholesterol sulfate regulates the gene for a protein called profilaggrin, by interacting like a hormone with the nuclear receptor ROR-alpha. Profilaggrin is the precursor to filaggrin, which protects the skin from invasive organisms. A deficiency in filaggrin is associated with asthma and arthritis. Therefore, cholesterol sulfate plays an important role in protecting us from asthma and arthritis. 33

Blood cells: Red blood cells are strong producers of cholesterol sulfate, as well as major carriers of oxygen. This makes them a prime candidate for using eNOS to convert oxygen to sulfate [taking advantage of sunlight as a catalyst], and then shipping it to the tissues via the carrier molecule cholesterol sulfate. This action would both protect the red blood cell from oxidative damage and reduce the risk of damage due to oxygen exposure in other cells, as the oxygen supply contained in the sulfate constitutes safe transport of oxygen to these cells. 33

Insulin: Sulfur is also a component of insulin, the hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. Insufficient sulfur may result in decreased insulin production and diabetes. It is also possible that a lack of bioavailable sulfur would make the cells so rigid and impermeable that they become unable to absorb sugar from the blood efficiently, leaving blood sugar levels elevated. Studies indicate that regular organic sulfur supplements which cause the cell to become permeable, could help balance blood sugar and allow the overworked pancreas to return to normal. 33 Back to top

How is sulfur depleted or destroyed in foods?: The food grown on our farms is depleted in numerous ways. This is exemplified by Dr. August Dunning, chief science officer and co-owner of Eco Organics, in his example of how apples have lost iron content from 1950 to 1998. [ refer to illustration on right side. ] The average apple in 1950 contained 4.3mg of iron. By 1998, that number dropped to just 0.18mg of iron per apple. This means that in 1998, you would need to eat 24 apples to get the same amount of iron you would get from just one apple in 1950! 47 Ofcourse, mineral depletion in farm soil has gotten much worse since 1998 with fossil fertilizers, pesticides and GMO seed crops.

The key to understanding how organic sulfur content in plants is lost is to be aware that sulfur is very unstable. It can almost instantly combine with water and oxygen.

Plants grown today on fossil fertilized farms are depleted of most of the sulfur. This can also happen in organic farming as well. Plants can only absorb the sulfur from the soil these are grown in. Vegetables begin to lose their sulfur content instantly when harvested. By the time the vegetables are displayed in the grocery store, four days later, they have lost more sulfur. Days later when you bring the veggies home there is very, very, very little sulfur content left.

Organic sulfur is also destroyed when we process our foods with heat, drying or storage over time.

Best to eat raw vegetables, raw nuts, fruit raw vegetables uncooked, unprocessed and do not store food for a long time if you want to preserve sulfur in foods. Back to top

When to expect benefits?: It takes time for organic sulfur supplement to kick in and bring about healing. 6, 10 The time can vary from several days to 6 months or longer, depending on the health status of the person. Pilot clinical trials suggest that a realistic time frame for response to MSM therapy is four to six weeks. For instance, in a small arthritis trial conducted at UCLA by R. M. Lawrence, pain scores exhibited a 60 percent improvement at four weeks and an 82 percent improvement at six weeks compared with placebo, which exhibited improvements of 20 and 18 percent respectively. Similarly, in a pilot trial on hair and nail health, 3 grams of MSM ingested daily led to significant improvements within six weeks. 6

UpDATE: Best Way to Take Organic Sulfur: There are now two ways to ingest sulfur. The best way is to take organic sulfur with a special vitamin C and the second is by itself.

1. Organic sulfur with lipsomal encapsulated vitamin C. Vitamin C should always be taken 1/2 hour AFTER MSM. This allows the MSM 1/2 hour to open the ports of the somatic or cancer cells for Vitamin C to enter in. For information on how this combination works, go to LivOn: Bioavailability

2. Organic Sulfur by itself: Organic sulfur stays within the body for 12 hours, thereafter excess sulfur is excreted. That’s why it’s best to take a sulfur supplement throughout the day in your filtered water once in the morning and once in the evening. You can mix 1 gram of flake crystal MSM in a glass of water or juice and at same time also ingest 300 mgs of vitamin C with or after a meal.

But here is the catch. There is some controversy as to whether you can drink chlorinated water with organic sulfur. Some sources state that chlorine in water blocks uptake of organic sulfur stating that one needs to drink chlorine free water when ingesting organic sulfur [MSM]: Regular tap water you drink has been chlorinated and the chlorine may interfere with optimal absorption of organic sulfur. On the other hand, Bergstrum Nutrition backs their observation with 20 years of research stating that chlorinated water does not interfere with dissolved optimSM being absorbed into the body. Sorochan prefers to maximizing the organic sulfur being absorbed optimally by mixing organic sulfur with de-chlorinated water or fruit juice.

Keep in mind that chlorine is a very unstable gas and evaporates quickly from water. You need to give chlorine a chance to do so before drinking it. There are several ways to get rid of the chlorine in the drinking water:

1. Use hot tap water, let it cool. [Hot water in water heater drives off chlorine.]

2. You can get the chlorine out of the tap water by putting a slice of lime or lemon, stir it and wait about 10 minutes for the lime juice [Vitamin C] to neutralize the chlorine.

3. Or you can boil the tap water for about five minutes and then let it cool, or

4. let the tap water sit in a jar for 10 or more hours and the chlorine will evaporate.

Now you have good drinking water and can proceed to mix the organic sulfur with water.

Ofcourse you can decide how you want to ingest organic sulfur. Back to top

Who should take MSM supplement?: It should be obvious by now that a conventional diet does not supply the minimum requirement of sulfur. It is absent in synthetic food additives, dietary mineral compositions, food substitutes, and most fillers used to dilute or modify foods. 7

Most persons and especially vegetarians, are deficient in sulfur but do not know it. Organic sulfur levels decline noticeably with age. So, the older you get, the more important it becomes to maintain adequate sulfur levels in the body. 7

Sulfur deficiency is now linked to many illnesses, disorders and diseases for which medical science has no answers. Unfortunately researchers look in the wrong places except sulfur to fix health problems. We need to supplement our diets with organic sulfur to bolster the body to heal and maintain itself. 7 Back to top

About 90% of the MSM supplements being marketed today are from China, are mixed with other products, cheap binders, fillers and other agents and sold as cheap tablets, or powders. These formats reduce the amount of pure MSM that you absorb. Also, tablets and cheaper powders don’t absorb well in the body 4, 5, 21 hence, many people absorb only a fraction of the MSM into the blood stream. Pure flake, crystal organic sulfur is readily absorbed into the body. 4, 5

It is the opinion of this researcher that the purest and safest quality of MSM large crystals made in the world is by Bergstrom Nutrition plant in Vancouver, Washington. This manufacturing plant is dedicated to making only one product and no other thereby ensuring no additives or contaminants in their original product. The trademark wholesale product logo, optiMSM, is pure large crystal made from a distillation process . It is sold to distributors who often repackage the original Bergstrom Nutrition product into various forms as powder, fine crystals, tablets and capsules. Many distributors often add binders, additives, silica and other impurities.

Bergstrom Nutrition, in special communication with Sorochan, "points out that although Bergstrom Nutrition sells to distributors, unfortunately they do not control how distributors of OptiMSM refer to our material nor how they package optiMSM."

"There is variety in the adjectives used to describe our OptiMSM. MSM does form crystals but the size of the crystals are dependent on the speed of which the MSM is cooled or solidified and whether it is crystallized from a pure molten state or from a parent solvent such as water. Bergstrom has two physical forms Microprill and Flake. The microprill is very fine so some people refer to it as powder. The flake is in general a larger particle size and some people refer to it as crystal. The flakes have small micro-fractures throughout the particles and therefore are fairly easy to break up. This is by design so that a larger particle can be supplied for better handle-ability but with a modest amount of mechanical manipulation they will break up allowing them to be made into capsules or tablets. Due to this property MSM flake can have some variation in the size of the particle when delivered to customers. The more it is handled during shipment the smaller the particle size will ultimately be." [Bergstrom Nutrition]

Researcher Sorochan contacted numerous sellers. The retailer responses were most disappointing, as they failed to clarify what their descriptive terms really meant [ crystal, crystal flake, flake and so on ]. In spite of these shortcomings, it is Sorochan's belief that two marketers of optiMSM selling pure flake crystal are:

1. KALA Health, Inc., Falmouth, MA., MSM Bulk Flake Phone Orders: (800) 998-8813

2. MSM Health Solutions, Inc., Anderson, Ca..  MSM Bulk Flake Phone: Orders Only 800-404-7299

3. Canadian buyers: Natural Health Organic Sulfur Products Ltd White Rock BC, Local: 604-542-9310 / Toll Free North America 1-855-875-9311. Marketer claims unsubstantialed!

Before buying a brand, ask the marketer questions about the following:

  1. purity of MSM --- Percent sulfur?
  2. source of sulfur --- where is product made? [ this is different from where it is packaged ]
  3. manufacturing process --- distillation or crystallization? Is plant dedicated to only MSM?
  4. form of MSM --- large or small crystals, powder, capsules, tablets?
  5. additives --- like silica, binders?
  6. do their products display the icon 'optiMSM' on the container?

Purity: Pure large white crystal MSM should be without any additives. Broken up crystals look like powder and are reputed to be less bioavailable [ less absorbed and used by the body ] many brands have additives that float at the top of the water when the powder crystals are mixed with water some may have impurities floating on top or bottom of the water.

Source: MSM can be synthetically processed from fossil oil or from natural organic plants. The MSM found in most health food stores doesn't work as well as the organic crystals from high-lignin pine trees. This is because the mostly Asian manufacturers heat the MSM to 486 degrees F. and physically crush the sulfur crystals to a powder, solely for manufacturing convenience. This renders the resulting MSM far less bioavailable for healing.

Manufacturing processes: There are two methods currently used in commercial production of MSM as a dietary supplement: crystallization and distillation . The comparative advantages and disadvantages of these methods can be stated as follows: Distillation produces a product of superior purity, but it is more expensive and therefore fewer manufacturers invest in it crystallization yields product with varying degrees of purity, but it is a more cost-effective method of production and is thus preferred by manufacturers making cheaper MSM. 38 MSM needs to be the only product made in a processing plant in order for MSM to be pure. The initial product by distillation should be large sulfur crystals. These crystals are often broken down into smaller crystals and these, in turn, can be pulverized into powder..

Form of MSM: MSM can be packaged in crystal or powder form. Organic Sulfur in MSM precipitated from DMSO into a coarse crystal flake and not processed any further does not have anti caking or flow agents added. When MSM is packaged in pills or capsules, additives such as anti-caking substances and silica are usually added so the powder dissolves rapidly in water. Additives in packaging can block or neutralize the bio availability of the sulfur contained in the MSM. Also, if the MSM mixture contains silicon dioxide as an additive, it indicates that the sulfur has been deactivated and rendered almost useless. Most encapsulated MSM and powders are made up of this deactivated, non-lignan containing form of sulfur.

Additives: There are several important considerations for deciding which MSM to take. In many of the powdered forms there are silica additives which are harmful to your health. Currently, the recommendation is that the most health-effective form is organic sulfur in it's naturally occurring large flake crystal form.

There are a lot of MSM web-sites marketers making claims that their brand of organic sulfur, Glucosamine + MSM, relieves many illnesses and joint pain conditions and is the same as organic sulfur. MSM has been used in many commercial products touting to alleviate joint and back pains and inflammation. But many persons suffering from joint pain and who have tried these MSM products have found out that they do not work! Researcher John Hammell, chapter leader for Weston A. Price Foundation in Point Roberts, Washington, has investigated the MSM sold in health food stores and on the web and why it doesn't work well. The reason is that it's only 39% sulfur, the rest is methyl cellulose and an anti caking ingredient called silicon dioxide that ruins the uptake of sulfur to the cells. It will work, sort of, but you have to take about 5x as much! 9 Back to top

Safety: MSM is considered a safe dietary supplement, and is listed as such on the Guide to Alternative Therapies for Osteoarthritis by The Arthritis Foundation. It is a non-toxic supplement which means you cannot overdose on it. 6, 7, 13, 28

Higher amounts appear to be safe, although some people do experience loose stool or abdominal discomfort when too much is taken at once. 38

According to Dr. Jacob, for more than two decades, thousands of people came to the DMSO Clinic at the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) and received upwards of 100 grams per day of MSM without serious side effects. In total, Dr. Jacob claims to have treated some 18,000 patients with MSM. 12

In March 1999, Stanley W. Jacob, M.D., and Ronald M. Lawrence, M.D., Ph.D., published “The Miracle of MSM: The Natural Solution for Pain”. Their book was based on their experience as medical doctors and MSM researchers. Combined, they have over 20 years of experience with fighting pain with MSM. They concluded that of more than 18,000 patients that suffered from chronic pain, about 70% experienced benefits from the use of MSM, finding that pain either diminished or disappeared altogether. 14

"MSM is rapidly absorbed, with a half-life of approximately 12 hours as calculated from published rat studies. Published studies have shown that MSM and its metabolites are excreted mainly via urine and, there is no accumulation of MSM by the body." 49 Back to top

Dosage: There is some discrepancy as to the best dosage. The Recommended Daily Allowance [RDA] committee recommends a combined Sulfur-containing Amino Acids [SAA] intake of at least 13 mg/kg per day. This is equivalent to approximately 910 mg/day for a 70 kg adult. Other authorities believe this figure to be too low and recommend an intake of 25 mg/kg/day of SAA for adults. A rule of thumb is 1 gram of protein should contain at least 17 mg of SAAs (e.g., gluten (wheat protein) or zein (corn protein)). 29

There is no direct Recommended Daily Allowance [RDA] for MSM. This is recommend daily intake of about 800-900 milligrams or 1 gram of sulfur per day. MSM supplement manufacturers typically suggest doses for use as a dietary supplement ranging from 2 to 10 grams per day.

The dosage varies with age and health condition: children still developing need more than mature adults. Organic sulfur requirements are lower in old age due to loss of lean tissue. [ SAA requirements are lower than in healthy younger adults. ] This information is based on body requirements needed to maintain nitrogen balance and support adequate lean tissue growth. 29

Certain health conditions, such as arthritis and liver disorders, may be improved by increasing the intake of sulfur to 1,500 milligrams per day in supplemental form [ most commonly as methylsulfonylmethane, or MSM ]. 27, 35 The amount of MSM in each dose is not critical --- but, body weight should always been considered when deciding on a proper dose. The reported minimum individual dose is about 750-1000 mg twice a day. However, total daily dosages of 2500 to 5000 mg have been recommended by some sources. For a maximum benefit, it has also been recommended to use an initial "load" dose of 3000 mg twice a day. This dose is reported to be safe when continued indefinitely for maximum results. Of course, you should work with your medical doctor on proper dosage for your weight.

A single dose of MSM is usually not effective in ameliorating symptoms. Noticeable results are usually seen within 2 to 21 days 10 , although there are reports that healing for some disorders or diseases may take anywhere from several months to even years. 17 Back to top

Allergy WARNING: A small percentage of people will get a skin rash if they take MSM internally. The skin rash is harmless, but it does itch and indicates the person cannot use this protocol because of an allergy to MSM

To test for this allergy rash, take ONLY 1 TEAspoon of “MSM Water” [“Organic Sulfur Water”], which is a very small amount of MSM. If you get a skin rash you should not take this protocol.

If you do not get a skin rash within two hours, take 1 TABLEspoon of “MSM Water.” If you do not get a skin rash in two more hours, you can take this protocol.

S-adenosylmethionine [SAMe] is an important methyl donor and metabolite of the sulfur-containing amino acid, methionine. SAMe may worsen the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and should be avoided until it is proven safe for these patients.

A concern arises in the use of N-acetylcysteine [NAC] in HIV positive patients because NAC can raise serum glutamine to above normal levels. 29 Back to top

Testing for sulfur in body: Doctors ask a patients whether they are allergic to sulfa drugs, but almost never whether they are allergic to sulfur in foods or drinks. They should!

There are two aspects of ingesting organic sulfur that should be mentioned. The first is whether the sulfur you are taking is really bioavailable …. that is, whether it is absorbed in sufficient quantities to be effective? And secondly, once absorbed into the body, is it helpful in improving your wellbeing?

The answer to the first question is based on excess sulfur being excreted from the body every 12 hours. Sulfur is excreted as sulfate, the urinary excretion of sulfate generally reflects input from either inorganic or amino acid sources. 29

Because the majority of body sulfate is obtained from the ingestion of protein-derived sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs) methionine, cysteine, cystine, homocysteine, homocystine, and taurine and because the primary route of sulfate excretion is in the urine, 24-hour urinary sulfate excretion is strongly correlated with 24-hour urinary excretion of urea, the end product of dietary protein metabolism. Urinary sulfate excretion has been suggested as a measure of sulfur amino acid metabolism in humans. 44

Indirect estimates of sulfate intake can be calculated from the intakes of sulfur containing amino acids. As of now, there is no direct single sulfate test to determine the amount of sulfates in the cells, blood or urine. Laboratories do not have any economic incentive to do research on this issue.

In spite of these limitations, ask you doctor to have lab test for both blood and urine markers as a baseline before you begin ingesting organic sulfur such as lab tests for inflammation, bone degradation, white blood cellcount and immunity, cholesterol, insulin, sulfur amino acids, protein wastes, glyphosate, AMPA, various sulfates and so on. Many of these tests are expensive.

Keep in mind that it may take anywhere from three to six weeks to produce significant changes in regard to the treatment of arthritic disorders and possibly longer for other sulfur effects. Then repeat the lab tests three or more months later and compare the pre and post test results. Did your cholesterol level and other test markers change?

Finding out whether organic sulfur is really healing or helpful can also be evaluated subjectively. Do you feel better? Do you have more energy? Do you see a change in your skin color or improvement in your condition? And yes, astute persons are aware that your subjective evaluation is not as scientific as the lab tests. But how you feel is your truth body feedback and could be more accurate and relevant than the medical lab tests. Back to top

Organic sulfur is a powerful nutrient that the body uses to make 150 or more body compounds. It has magic healing properties and can no longer be ignored by medical doctors and nutritionists. Sulfur is an essential element for all life and cannot be replaced by medications!

Beware that the organic sulfur in foods is very unstable and in a sense evaporates very rapidly once vegetables, nuts fruits and grains are harvested.

MSM [organic sulfur] makes cell walls permeable, allowing water and nutrients to freely flow into cells and allowing wastes and toxins to properly flow out. The body uses MSM along with Vitamin C to create new, healthy cells, and MSM provides the flexible bond between the cells. Without proper levels of MSM, our bodies are unable to build good healthy cells, and this leads to problems such as sore back, lost flexibility, scar tissue, wrinkles, varicose veins, hardened arteries, damaged lung tissues, dry cracking skin, digestive disorders, joint problems, and inability to defend against allergic reactions to food, insects, animals and plants.

MSM is an anti-oxidant that helps to clean the blood stream and flush toxins trapped in our cells. It is also a scavenger for foreign proteins and free radicals. In order to maintain good health, we need to supplement our diets with MSM, to enable the body to heal and maintain itself. The body uses what it needs, and after 12 hours will flush out any excess amounts. You can become a new person in just a few months!

Approximately half of the total body sulfur is concentrated in the muscles, skin and bones. One of the most significant uses of MSM as a supplement is its demonstrated ability to relieve pain and inflammation. When rigid fibrous tissue cells swell and become inflamed, pressure and pain result. Since MSM can restore flexibility and permeability to cell walls, fluids can pass through the tissues more easily. This helps equalize pressure and reduce or eliminate the cause of pain. Harmful substances such as lactic acid and toxins are allowed to flow out, while nutrients are permitted to flow in. This prevents the pressure buildup in cells that causes inflammation.

MSM has shown a remarkable ability to reduce or eliminate muscle soreness and cramps both in geriatric patients and in athletes.

Organic sulfur is a powerful nutrient that has magic healing properties and can no longer be ignored by medical doctors and nutritionists. Sulfur is an essential element for all life.

MSM marketing is big business. There are now over 25 million products that are now made with MSM due to its effectiveness for relieving pain and inflammation. Back to top

Hypocrisy of the US Federal government: The 񟭏 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee' [DGAC] makes dosage recommendation for sulfur on the one hand 29 , but failed to officially recognize or endorse organic sulfur [MSM] as an essential body nutrient! 22 Indeed, a review of the 2015 Report by researcher Sorochan found that the report barely alluded to federal food policies, tactfully did not mention that fossil fertilizers disabled natural sulfur availability to plants and refrained from recognizing sulfur as being important to wellbeing.

Although the above hypocrisy would be enough in itself to incriminate the federal government, there is real documented evidence that our own government [congress and senate] knew about the danger of minerals being depleted in farming soils as early as 1936 . the Congress Record recorded the report and thereafter ignored it up to now!

Congressional Document No. 264 in year June 5,1936: "The alarming fact is that foods - fruits, vegetables and grains - now being raised on millions of acres of land that no longer contains enough of certain needed minerals, are starving us - no matter how much of them we eat! . We know that rats, guinea pigs, and other animals can be fed into a diseased condition and out again by controlling only the minerals in their food. . Sick soils mean sick plants, sick animals and sick people." 46

1. Alberta Sulphur Fertilizer Application in Crop Production Alberta Sulphur Fertilizer

2. Challier B, Perarnau JM, Viel JF. "Garlic, onion and cereal fibre as protective factors for breast cancer," European Journal of Epidemiology,1998 14(8):737–747. [A French case-control study] Garlic prevents cancer

3. Chan JM, Wang F, Holly EA, "Vegetable and fruit intake and pancreatic cancer in a population-based case-control study in the San Francisco bay area," Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, 2005 14(9):2093–2097. fruit diet prevents cancer

4. Clarke Richard, "Organic Sulphur," West Coast Organic Sulfur Study. Clarke: W Coast study

5. Coast Organic Sulfur Project W Coast Sulfur Project

6. Clouatre Dallas, "MSM The bemefits of organic sulfur," TotalHealth, June 12, 2010. Clouatre Sulfur benefits

7. Donsky Andrea, "20 REASONS TO TRY ORGANIC SULFUR," Naturally Organic Savvy, January 12, 2013. Domsky: reasons try sulfur

8. Haas Elson, "Mineral Sulfur," Healthy Net. Sulfur is essential

9. Hammel John, "The Missing Link to Regenerating Cellular Health, Boosting Immunity and Reducing Pain and inflammation," Hammel: S boost immunity

10. Herschler R.J., "Dietary and pharmaceutical uses of methylsulfonylmethane and compositions comprising it," U.S. Patent 4,514,421. April 30, 1985. Accessed 2011-03-1. Herschler: Patent MSM uses

11. Ip C., and Gantherr HE., “Comparison of selenium and sulfur analogs in cancer prevention,” Carcinogenesis, July Ip: Selenium - Sulfur

12. Jacob Stanley W.,“Current status of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO),” DMSO Background Literature, March 2002. Jacob: DMSO

13. Jacob Stanley W., and Robert Herschler, “Pharmacology of DMSO,” DMSO Background Literature, Academic Press, Inc., Printed 1985. Stanley DMSO Pharmacology

14. Jacob Stanley W., Lawrence RM, Zucker M., The Miracle of MSM: The Natural Solution for Pain. New York: Penguin-Putnam, 1999.

15. Kalman et al.: Influence of methylsulfonylmethane on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men: a pilot study. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2012 9:46. Kalman: MSM exercise recovery

16. Kim LS, Axelrod LJ, Howard P, Buratovich N, Waters RF., "Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in osteoarthritis pain of the knee: a pilot clinical trial," March 2006 14(3):286-94. Epub 2005 Nov 23. Kim: MSM relieves osteoarthritis pain

17. Lawrence Ronald M., Daniel Sanchez, Mark Grosman, “LIGNISUL MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane) IN THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE ATHLETIC INJURIES,” Lawrence: MSM treating sports injuries

18. Lee Thomas S., "An important protection from radioactivity." Lee: MSM protection against radioactivity

19. Lignan -- An -- is a polyphenolic compound that may have phytoestrogenic effects in the body. Flax seed is an exceptionally rich source of lignans. Lignin -- In -- is a polymeric compound that supports cellular structure in plants, like cellulose (and is thus "insoluble fiber"). It is true that lignins are not sulfurous, but the wood pulp industry uses sulfur compounds to break down the raw stuff Di-methyl-sulfoxide [DMSO] is a by-product of that process. DMSO is easily converted into Di-methyl-sulfone, a.k.a. DMSO2, a.k.a Methyl-Sulfonyl-Methane [MSM]. The pulp is thus a source of methyl groups, not sulfur. Methyl groups are very important in liver detoxification and epigenetic processes. Sulfur is a vital element in most major antioxidants in the body, especially Glutathione (if you see "thiol" or "thione" then you are seeing a sulfur compound) Alpha-Lipoic Acid, a.k.a. Thioctic Acid, is also a sulfur antioxidant. Artificial fertilizers and pesticides have seriously interrupted the natural remineralization of our crop soils sulfur, a major bodily mineral, has been one of the many casualties. MSM is known both as Organic Sulfur and Biological Sulfur. Purity is probably better obtained by distillation than by crystallization.

20. Magnus Axelson, “25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 3-sulphate is a major circulating form of vitamin D in man,” FEBS Letters, 1985, Volume 191, Issue 2, 28 October, pp 171-175. Magnus: vitamin D-3 Sulfate in body

21. McGean Patrick, “The Sulfur Study - Early results of an experimental study using Organic Sulfur,” NaturoDoc: McGean: early MSM research

23. Mindell, Earl L, The MSM Miracle - Enhance your health with organic sulfur, Keats Good Health Guide, Keats Publishing, Inc., New Canaan, CT, 1997. Mindell book MSM

24. Morton, Jane I., and R. D. Moore. "Lupus nephritis and deaths are dimished in B/W mice drinking 3% water solutions of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethyl sulfone (DMSO (2)," Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 1986, 40 (3)322. 9.

25. MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane) INFORMATION. MSM info

26. MSM - Medical Information Foundation, “The MSM Miracle,” Entire page copyright 2005 – 2014. MSM Medical info

27. Murray Michael T., "What is the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for sulfur?" Shareware. Murray: RDA sulfur

28. Pagonis Thomas A, Panagiotis A Givissis, Aristidis C Kritis, Anastasios C Christodoulou, “The Effect of Methylsulfonylmethane on Osteoarthritic Large Joints and Mobility,” International Journal of Orthopaedics,June 23, 2014. Pagonis: MSM & osteoarthritis

29. Parcell Stephen, “Sulfur in Human Nutrition and Applications in Medicine,” Alternative Medicine 2002, Review Volume 7, Number 1. Parcell: Sulfur in humans & Medicine

30. Plant & soil Sciences Library, "Soils - Part 7: Soil and Plant Considerations for Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur, Zinc, and other Micronutrients." University of Nebraska. Plant soils & minerals

31. Roth Ronald, "Alzheimer's Disease: Nutritional Causes, Treatments & Prevention," Acu_Cell Disorders The Weston A. Price Foundation, July 2, 2011. Roth: Alzheimer's & sulfur deficiency

32. Schauss Alexander G., “Natural or Synthetic? Resolving the Controversy,” 2005. Schauss: Controversy MSM

33. Seneff Stephanie, "A Possible Contributing Factor in Obesity, Heart Disease, Alzheimer’s and Chronic Fatigue," The Weston A. Price Foundation, July 2, 2011. Seneff: Sulfur deficiency

34. Seneff, Stephanie T.,“Could Sulfur Deficiency Be a Contributing Factor in Obesity, Heart Disease, Alzheimer’s, and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?” The Weston A. Price Foundation, September 15, 2010 Seneff: Sulfur deficiency & obesity

35. Sircus ,"Cancer, Sulfur, Garlic & Glutathione," Dr., June 25, 2012 . Sircus: Sulfur & cancer

36. Stuber Kent, Sandy Sajko and Kevyn Kristmanson, "Efficacy of glucosamine, chondroitin, and methylsulfonylmethane for spinal degenerative joint disease and degenerative disc disease: a systematic review," J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2011 Mar 55(1): 47–55. Stuber: MSM compunds not effective for joint diseases

37. Tarantino Laura M., "Agency Response Letter GRAS Notice No. GRN 000229," Director Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, February 18, 2008. Tarantino: FDA notice that Bergstrom Nutrition MSM is GRAS [notice informs FDA of the view of Bergstrom Nutrition that MSM is Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS)]

38. TvWikiTV, “Methylsulfonylmethane.” TvWikiTV MSM & srudies

39. Usha PR, Naidu MU, “Randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study of oral glucosamine, methylsulfonylmethane and their combination in osteoarthritis,” Clin Drug Investig . 200424(6):353-363. Usha: Research MSM - glucosomine & osteoarthris

40. Vrentas Mike, "MSM & Vitamin C," February 27, 2015. Vrentas: MSM & vit C

41. Wikipedia, "Methylsulfonylmethane."   Wiki: MSM

42. Wikipedia, “Talk:Methylsulfonylmethane.” [Research studies on MSM] Wiki: Research studies on MSM

43. Wo Foye, “Sulfur compounds in therapy: radiation-protective agents, amphetamines, and mucopolysaccharide sulfation,”The Annals of pharmacotherapy, 1992 Sep26(9):1144-7. . Wo: MSM therapy

44. Lab testing for organic sulfur in body, "Sulfate Summary." Sulfur Lab testing info

45. Jez Joseph, "Sulfur: A missing link between soill, crops and nutrition," Book online American Society of Agronomy Inc., 2008. Jez: Sulfur link to crops & nutrition

46. Jackson Melvin, "3 Easy Ways To Turn Your Health Around In 2015," Health Trends Digest, 2015 Jackson: Health fertilizer trends

46. Beach Rex, "Modern Miracle Men - Dr. Charles Northerm, who builds health from the ground up," Document No. 264 74th Congress 2nd session, June 5, 1936. Beach: health from ground up

47. Mercola Joseph, "How to Bring Minerals Back Into the Soil and Food Supply,", May 25, 2014. Mercola: minerals back into soil

48. Bhagavan N.V. and Chung-Eun Ha,"Essentials of Medical Biochemistry," Academic Press, 2015 [Book] Second Edition. Bhagavan: Amino Acids

49. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, "Agency Response Letter GRAS Notice No. GRN 000229," Response to Bergstroom Nutrition, February 18, 2008. citation no longer on internet.

50. Epp Melanie, "Ontario sulphur trials VARYING RESULTS," Ontario grain farmer, March 2014. Epp: sulfur in soils 2014

MRS GREN is sometimes known as MRS C GREN to recognize the importance of how living things control their internal environment. All living things have an internal environment inside their body and inside their cells. This internal environment needs to be maintained within certain conditions. Control refers to the way organisms are able to preserve the environment inside of their cells and organs to a certain set of conditions. Maintaining the internal environment of an organism is known as homeostasis.

Growth is an irreversible change in mass. It is possible because respiration provides excess energy for organisms to use to grow. Excess energy can be used for the production of new cells and tissue which inevitably leads to the growth of an individual.

The Sulfur Cycle

Sulfur is an essential element for the macromolecules of living things. As a part of the amino acid cysteine, it is involved in the formation of disulfide bonds within proteins, which help to determine their 3-D folding patterns, and hence their functions. As shown in [link], sulfur cycles between the oceans, land, and atmosphere. Atmospheric sulfur is found in the form of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and enters the atmosphere in three ways: from the decomposition of organic molecules, from volcanic activity and geothermal vents, and from the burning of fossil fuels by humans.

On land, sulfur is deposited in four major ways: precipitation, direct fallout from the atmosphere, rock weathering, and geothermal vents ([link]). Atmospheric sulfur is found in the form of sulfur dioxide (SO2), and as rain falls through the atmosphere, sulfur is dissolved in the form of weak sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Sulfur can also fall directly from the atmosphere in a process called fallout . Also, the weathering of sulfur-containing rocks releases sulfur into the soil. These rocks originate from ocean sediments that are moved to land by the geologic uplifting of ocean sediments. Terrestrial ecosystems can then make use of these soil sulfates (SO4−SO4−), and upon the death and decomposition of these organisms, release the sulfur back into the atmosphere as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas.

Sulfur enters the ocean via runoff from land, from atmospheric fallout, and from underwater geothermal vents. Some ecosystems ([link]) rely on chemoautotrophs using sulfur as a biological energy source. This sulfur then supports marine ecosystems in the form of sulfates.

Human activities have played a major role in altering the balance of the global sulfur cycle. The burning of large quantities of fossil fuels, especially from coal, releases larger amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas into the atmosphere. As rain falls through this gas, it creates the phenomenon known as acid rain. Acid rain is corrosive rain caused by rainwater falling to the ground through sulfur dioxide gas, turning it into weak sulfuric acid, which causes damage to aquatic ecosystems. Acid rain damages the natural environment by lowering the pH of lakes, which kills many of the resident fauna it also affects the man-made environment through the chemical degradation of buildings. For example, many marble monuments, such as the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC, have suffered significant damage from acid rain over the years. These examples show the wide-ranging effects of human activities on our environment and the challenges that remain for our future.

Click this link to learn more about global climate change.

Similarities between plants and animals

We begin by explaining what these living beings have in common. Thus, some of the main similarities between plants and animals are:

They are living beings

Both plants and animals are living beings that are born, grow, feed, follow reproductive cycles and finally die, that is, they follow the so-called life cycle.

Both have eukaryotic cells

Unlike the prokaryotic cells of bacteria, plants and animals possess eukaryotic cells, with a well-defined nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles specialized in specific functions. Some organelles differ between the two, such as the presence of chloroplasts in plant cells and mitochondria in animals.

Learn more about their cells in this other article in which we explain the similarity and difference between animal and plant cells .

They need water, nutrients and sun

Both need to capture certain substances from the environment, with the only difference being the method they use. Thus, while animals ingest them with food, plants absorb them from the soil. This is the case of water and nutrients. In addition, both organisms need sunlight to live.

They have biochemical routes and biomolecules in common

In both plants and animals there are certain common cellular biochemical pathways. They also possess certain common biomolecules forming part of their organism and their cells.

Impulse movement capacity

Plants are unable to move or move through their environment as animals do, but they do have limited movement capacity to, for example, capture the highest light intensity in an area or the movement of the roots towards where the nutrients are located. For example, that plants grow or turn in the direction of the sun, is known as tropism and is one of its main capabilities to move by an impulse, as animals do with various things.

Key Differences Between Plants and Animals

Given below points will present the main features on which plants and animals vary:

  1. The ability of the plants of preparing their food with the help of sunlight, water and the air is what makes them unique, the green colour pigment called as chlorophyll, and the capacity of providing oxygen, food to the living beings are the characteristics of the plants. The exclusive characters present in animals are different types of organs and organ systems, like nervous, reproductive, digestive, etc. They are sensitive and show the quick response to the stimuli. They entirely depend on plants, directly or indirectly for their food.
  2. Animals show movement, which can be on the ground through legs, underwater through fins or in air through wings, on the contrary plants cannot move from one place to another, as plants are rooted into the ground, an exception is Volvox and Chlamydomonas. Animals have exceptions like Sponges and Corals.
  3. Plants have chlorophyll, due to which they can prepare their food in the presence of air, water and sunlight, and due to this feature, they are termed as autotrophs. On other hands, animals are termed as heterotrophs, as they depend on plants for their food, either directly or indirectly for their nutrition.
  4. Storage of food (carbohydrate) is in the form of starch in plants, while in animals the food is stored in the form of glycogen, the animals have the proper digestive system which supports in digesting the food materials.
  5. In plants exchange of gases occurs through stomata where the plants take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen into the atmosphere, whereas in case of animals it is just opposite as animals take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, this process occurs through lungs, gills, skin, etc.
  6. As plants and animals are eukaryotic, so they have almost similar cellular structure, but few organelles like chloroplast, plasmodesmata, cell wall, plastids, etc. are only found in the plant cell, while in there is no cell wall in the animal cell instead they have cilia, the tight junction for other functionality.
  7. The growth of the plants is not restricted and takes place through life in their meristematic regions like roots, stems, the tip of leaves, etc. Animals are confined to grow up to the certain period, and their organs and organ system support the growth.
  8. Reproduction of plants takes place asexually like by budding, vegetative methods, spores, wind, or through insects, whereas some lower animals like algae reproduce asexually while higher animals reproduce sexually and give birth to the young ones.
  9. Plants response to stimuli like touch, light, though are less sensitive due to the absence of the sense organs, animals have the proper nervous system and the sense organs too due to which they respond to any stimuli in a fraction of seconds.


  • They respond to stimuli.
  • They breathe, reproduce, grow.
  • They try to adapt according to changes in the environment.
  • The basic unit of their structure is the eukaryotic cell.
  • They both require air and water to survive.
  • They proper grow and develop.


In this content, we studied the ground points on which the plants differ from the animal. We can say that, after having a few characters similar, both plants and animals show a lot of variations. Another thing is that they both have a mutual relationship to maintain the ecosystem. So they are equally important and play a significant role in the environment.