What is the name of this fruit?

What is the name of this fruit?

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I have attached a photo. I know the Nepali name for this fruit but not its common name in English and its scientific names. In Nepal we call it as 'lahare Aanp' (meaning Climber Mango). This fruit is a climber type like cucumber.

Does anybody know its common name in English and its scientific name?

This is a passionfruit. It comes from a plant whose scientific name is Passiflora edulis.

It's indeed a climber, as you can see:

Finally, a curiosity about the name passion fruit. The fruit is called passion fruit because the flower is called passion flower. This is the flower:

But why it is called passion flower? Passion here has nothing to do with sexual love or desire, the common meaning of "passion", but with the suffering of Jesus.

Some say that it's because the flower resembles (?) the crown of thorns placed in Jesus' head. Other say that it symbolises Jesus' wounds. In fact, in portuguese we call it "flor das cinco chagas", or flower of the five wounds.

EDIT: thanks to @AlanBoyd's comment, you can see that its connections with Christianity are way more complex:

Post Scriptum (not related to the question): this plant is native to Brazil, and I had a couple of specimens in my yard. One of the most interesting things about passionfruits in Brazil is that it attracts an insect that we call "percevejo do maracujá", or passionfruit bug in a very free translation. Its scientific name is Diactor bilineatus, and it's one of the most beautiful insects to me. I loved to see them feeding on my passionfruits. This is the adult on a passionfruit (where you normally find them), and the nymph is even more colourful:


Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Apple, (Malus domestica), fruit of the domesticated tree Malus domestica (family Rosaceae), one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. The apple is a pome (fleshy) fruit, in which the ripened ovary and surrounding tissue both become fleshy and edible. The apple flower of most varieties requires cross-pollination for fertilization. When harvested, apples are usually roundish, 5–10 cm (2–4 inches) in diameter, and some shade of red, green, or yellow in colour they vary in size, shape, and acidity depending on the variety.

Apple varieties, of which there are thousands, fall into three broad classes: (1) cider varieties (2) cooking varieties and (3) dessert varieties, which differ widely but tend to emphasize colour, size, aroma, smoothness, and perhaps crispness and tang. Many varieties are relatively high in sugar, only mildly acidic, and very low in tannin. Apples provide vitamins A and C, are high in carbohydrates, and are an excellent source of dietary fibre. Apples are eaten fresh or cooked in a variety of ways and are frequently used as a pastry filling, apple pie being perhaps the archetypal American dessert. Especially in Europe, fried apples characteristically accompany certain dishes of sausage or pork.

Malus species are native to the temperate zones of both hemispheres. Apples were eaten by the earliest Europeans. Improved selections had been made, and varieties were recognized more than 2,000 years ago. Hundreds of varieties were recognized in Europe before the settlement of the Americas. As the wave of settlement moved across North America, it was accompanied by the distribution of seedling apple varieties, perhaps by Indians and trappers, certainly by itinerants who became local legendary figures, the most prominent being Johnny Appleseed ( John Chapman), a professional nurseryman who planted apple trees extensively in Ohio and Indiana.

Since the apple requires a considerable period of dormancy, it thrives in areas having a distinct winter period, generally from latitude 30° to 60°, both north and south. Northward, apple growing is limited by low winter temperatures and a short growing season. The soils in which apple trees grow must be well drained fertilizers can be used if the yield is not high enough. Rolling hilltops or the sloping sides of hills are preferred because they provide “air drainage,” allowing the colder, heavier air to drain away to the valley below during frosty spring nights, when blossoms or young fruit would be destroyed by exposure to cold.

Scions of desired varieties are commonly grafted onto hardy nursery seedlings of about 18 months of age orchard planting follows one or two years later. Management during the six to eight years before appreciable apple production is reached may consist of little more than protection from competing vegetation and pests. Careful attention to pruning is required, however, especially during the first five years, so that the main scaffold branches will be well distributed along the trunk and to prevent development of weak crotches, which can break under heavy fruit loads. With mature trees, a rigorous spraying regime must be followed to protect against insect pests and possibly to delay spring development, to thin young fruit, and to hold the autumn drop of ripening fruit to a minimum.

Apple varieties that ripen during late summer are generally of poor quality for storage. Varieties that ripen in late autumn may be stored for as long as one year, however. For long holding, temperatures only slightly above the freezing point of the fruit are generally desirable. Apples may also be stored in inert gases or in controlled atmospheres.

The world crop of apples averages more than 60 million metric tons a year, the vast majority of which is produced by China. Of the American crop, more than half is normally used as fresh fruit. About one-fifth is used for vinegar, juice, jelly, and apple butter. About one-sixth is canned as pie stock and applesauce. In Europe a larger fraction of the crop goes for cider, wine, and brandy. Of the total world production, one-fourth goes for cider.

In 2011 the largest producers of apples were China, the United States, India, Turkey, and Poland. The largest exporters of apples in 2010 were China, Italy, Chile, the United States, and Poland, while the biggest importers in the same year were Russia, the United Kingdom, Iraq, the Netherlands, and Spain.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.

What is Pomology? (with pictures)

Pomology is a branch of horticulture which focuses on the cultivation, production, harvest, and storage of fruit, especially tree fruits. Fruit orchards can be found all over the world, and tree fruits are a major industry in many countries, making pomology especially vital. Pomologists can work in the industry, or for research facilities at universities and other organizations.

The word “pomology” comes from the Latin word for “apple,” but pomology is about a lot more than just apples. Any number of fruit trees can be included in a survey of pomology, like apricots, pears, plums, peaches, cherries, nectarines, and avocados. Pomologists also research tree nuts like almonds, walnuts, and pecans, among others.

One of the most critical aspects of pomology is the development of new fruit cultivars. A pomologist can cross-breed various fruit cultivars for specifically desired traits, such as flavor, hardiness, or disease-resistance. Pomology has contributed a number of exotic and interesting fruit cultivars to the world, such as the pluot, a cross between a plum and an apricot. If a pomologist can breed a distinctive and entirely new cultivar, he or she stands to profit significantly from the resulting patents.

Pomologists also look at the best way to grow trees, determining which regions trees grow in, and the amounts of water and fertilizer preferred by different cultivars. In addition, they study pests which attack fruit trees, and address issues of regional concern, like droughts or seasonal flooding.

Once a tree fruits, the work of a pomologist isn't over. Pomology is also used to develop new ways to harvest, store, and ship fruit, with a focus on keeping fruit healthy and flavorful until it reaches the consumer. Many cultivars have been specifically bred for easier harvesting and storage, but pomologists also work on things like agricultural equipment and special shipping containers for delicate fruits such as peaches.

Someone who wants to work in the field of pomology generally starts out studying horticulture, with a focus on pomology in the later years of study. Many professional pomologists have a masters or doctoral degree, which includes a thesis in a topic of specific interest, and they are just as comfortable in the field as in the lab (or greenhouse).

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a InfoBloom researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a InfoBloom researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

Indigenous Fruits of Zimbabwe

The use of indigenous has been used loosely to refer to fruits that are found in the wild in Zimbabwe’s countryside. I would like to thank Evelyn Roe for providing the English and Latin names for the fruits. Whenever I come to Zimbabwe I always look forward to getting my fix of indigenous fruits.

Nhengeni – Ximenia caffra, sour plum in the family Olacaceae. There is another species of Ximenia commonly found, which is Ximenia americana. It has slightly smaller fruits, more orange than red in colour, and its leaves are hairless and blue-green, whereas the one in your photographs has larger, reddish fruits, and hairy green leaves and stems. In Zambia, this red-fruited one is known as the ‘female’ one, and X americana as the ‘male’, but this is not a botanical distinction, more of a cultural one.

Matunduru or Mutunduru – (Garcinia buchananii, granite mangosteen, in the Clusiaceae)

Nhunguru – Flacourtia indica, governor’s plum, in the Flacourtiaceae

Hubva/Tsubvu – Vitez mombassae, in the Lamiaceae. Known as smelly-berry fingerleaf, according to the Zim flora website,

Hubva/Tsubvu fresh from the tree

Masawu – Ziziphus, probably Ziziphus abyssinica, or jujube, in the Rhamnaceae

Mupfura – Sclerocarya birrea. Known as marula

Nyii – Berchemia discolor, birdplum, also known as ‘African sweets’, in the Rhamnaceae

Nyii straight from the tree in Victoria Falls!

Hacha or Muhacha – Parinari curatellifolia, mobola plum, in the Chrysobalanaceae

Nzambara – Carissa edulis, simple-spined num-num, in the Apocynaceae

Matohwe – Azanza garckeana, snot-apple, in the Malvaceae

/>Credit: Lambda Chetse

Matamba – Strychnos, but not sure which one. Family Strychnaceae. Umkhemeswane in Ndebele.

Tsambati – Lannea edulis in the Anacardiaceae. The Zim flora website calls it ‘wild grape’ but I haven’t heard that name, and it’s not in the grape family.

Mususu – Looks like Lantana camara to me. A seriously invasive plant introduced to South Africa over a hundred years ago and spreading rampantly throughout the southern hemisphere. There are native Lantana species, but I don’t think this is one. Just known as lantana in English. Family Verbenaceae.

Hute or Mukute – Syzygium cordatum, waterberry, in the Myrtaceae.

Madhorofiya/Madhorosiya – Opuntia, prickly-pear. Cactaceae. Introduced to Africa long ago. Sometimes categorised as invasive. There are no native cacti species in Africa.

Masekesa – Piliostigma thonningii, in the Caesalpinioideae section of the Fabaceae family (legumes)

Mazhanje, Uapaca kirkiana, the sugar plum or mahobohobo, is a species of dioecious plant in the family Phyllanthaceae.

Maroro, wild custard-apple, Annona senegalensis


Matufu, False wild medlar, Vangueria infausta

Some are also known by different names in the different regions. If you have any additional info including descriptions of the fruits, taste, seasons, eating instructions etc please feel free to post in the comments. You can also checkout Zimbabwean Tropical fruits and Zim Flora for more resources on flora in Zimbabwe.

Evelyn Roe studied Botany at the University of Edinburgh and now work as a researcher with the North-West Naturalists’ Society of Zambia, which is based in Livingstone. I also have 16 years’ experience teaching biology, in the UK and Botswana. One of my first projects in Zambia was a floristic survey at the Victoria Falls on behalf of NHCC. She has published Wild Flowers of the Victoria Falls Area with Helen Pickering in 200


Figure 1. In grapes, application of gibberellic acid increases the size of fruit and loosens clustering. (credit: Bob Nichols, USDA)

Gibberellins (GAs) are a group of about 125 closely related plant hormones that stimulate shoot elongation, seed germination, and fruit and flower maturation. GAs are synthesized in the root and stem apical meristems, young leaves, and seed embryos. In urban areas, GA antagonists are sometimes applied to trees under power lines to control growth and reduce the frequency of pruning.

GAs break dormancy (a state of inhibited growth and development) in the seeds of plants that require exposure to cold or light to germinate. Abscisic acid is a strong antagonist of GA action. Other effects of GAs include gender expression, seedless fruit development, and the delay of senescence in leaves and fruit. Seedless grapes are obtained through standard breeding methods and contain inconspicuous seeds that fail to develop. Because GAs are produced by the seeds, and because fruit development and stem elongation are under GA control, these varieties of grapes would normally produce small fruit in compact clusters. Maturing grapes are routinely treated with GA to promote larger fruit size, as well as looser bunches (longer stems), which reduces the instance of mildew infection (Figure 1).

The Queen of Fruits for the Queen of England

As legend has it, Queen Victoria of Britain was once told about a divinely delicious purple fruit, which grew in far away Southeast Asia. The Queen made a promise to bestow knighthood on anyone who would bring it to her but all efforts failed. The reason was that in the 19th century, the journey from Southeast Asia took months and the delicate fruit would invariably go bad before reaching Britain.

Like durian, the mangosteen is a Southeast Asian native and bears fruits at the same time. While the &ldquoking of fruits&rdquo is considered by the Chinese to be &ldquoheaty&rdquo due to its rich and heavy flavour, the mangosteen posses just the opposite, &ldquocooling&rdquo properties, having the most exquisite juicy white flesh, sweet yet slightly acid. All this is the reason why the mangosteen is honoured with the high position of the Queen among fruits of the region.

The mangosteen is high in calcium, phosphorous, vitamin B and C. The thick woody shell of the purplish-black mangoosteen encloses several segments of flesh. It can be open by squeezing gently on either side, but be careful &ndash if sprayed, the juice of its skin will stain your clothes for good. If the skin does not pull apart easily, the fruit is not ripe so wait another day or so.

Russian writer Ivan Goncharov, who had undertaken a long voyage to the Southern Seas in the 19th century, first tasted the mangosteen during his ship&rsquos stopover in Singapore, and described it in The Frigate Pallada as follows: &ldquoI cut the fruit <&hellip> Cooling, fresh, delicate, and sweet, with a slight sourness. It was a mangosteen, which the English pronounce &ldquomangusten&rdquo. The English can&rsquot help mispronouncing words.&rdquo

Practical Work for Learning

Class practical

Apples and potatoes go brown after cutting or crushing. This practical involves making observations of the process and developing (or considering) hypotheses that might explain the reaction. Each hypothesis is tested by further investigations. The conclusions have applications in commercial food processing, where it is important to reduce or prevent the browning of fruits and vegetables to maintain their appeal to consumers.

Lesson organisation

After an initial observation of browning, there are four investigations of the process of browning. All students should be involved in making initial observations, then each group of students could carry out one further investigation and pool their results for the class. This would reduce the time and materials required. Investigation 3 is quite complicated in terms of handling glassware and gases, and may be better as a demonstration.

Apparatus and Chemicals

For each group of students:

Initial observations:
Scalpel or knife to cut fruit or vegetable samples
Tiles to cut on
Mortar and pestle
Tongs or forceps, 1
Apple or potato, 1 medium sized
Distilled water
Benzene-1,2-diol solution in water, 1%, in a dropper bottle (Note 1)

Investigation 1
Tongs or forceps, 1
Beaker, 100 cm 3 , 2
Phenol, 1%, 50 cm 3 (Note 2)
Distilled water
Benzene-1,2-diol solution in water, 1%, in a dropper bottle (Note 1)

Investigation 2
Beaker, 100 cm 3 , 4
Tongs or forceps, 1
Kettle, to boil water
Cold water supply – to mix with boiling water to make series of water baths
Thermometer, to read up to 100 °C, 3
Benzene-1,2-diol solution in water, 1%, in a dropper bottle (Note 1)

Investigation 3
Tongs or forceps, 1
Boiling tubes, 3
Boiling tubes with associated tubing to investigate the effect of different atmospheres (Note 3)
Carbon dioxide generator (Note 3)
Nitrogen generator (or rather oxygen absorber) (Note 3)
Benzene-1,2-diol solution in water, 1%, in a dropper bottle (Note 1)

Investigation 4
Beaker, 100 cm 3 , 6
Tongs or forceps, 1
Ascorbic acid solution at different strengths (5%, 3.5%, 2.5%, 2%, 1%), 50 cm 3 of each
Benzene-1,2-diol solution in water, 1%, in a dropper bottle (Note 1)

Investigation 5
Beaker, 100 cm 3 , 7
Tongs or forceps, 1
Hydrochloric acid, 2 %, 50 cm 3
Citric acid, 2%, 50 cm 3
Sodium hydrogensulfate(IV) (sodium hydrogensulfite), 2%, 50 cm 3
Sodium chloride, 2%, 50 cm 3
Sucrose, 2%, 50 cm 3
Boiling water (from kettle)
Distilled water (cold)
Benzene-1,2-diol solution in water, 1%, in a dropper bottle (Note 1)

Health & Safety and Technical notes

Do not eat any of the apple or potato.
Take care with all the solutions and hot water from the kettle.
Wear eye protection when handling the benzene-1,2-diol, phenol and acids.
Be aware of students and staff with breathing difficulties such as asthma sulfur dioxide from the sodium hydrogensulfate(IV) might exacerbate the condition (Note 5).

1 Benzene-1,2-diol (catechol) and similar compounds in fruit and vegetables are the substances oxidised to cause the colour change. If the apple or potato is not browning quickly, add 3-4 drops benzene-1,2-diol to the sample to provide more substrate for the enzymes to work on. Benzene-1,2-diol is described on Hazcard 12 as HARMFUL in contact with the skin or if swallowed, and IRRITATING to the eyes and skin. Wear eye protection and avoid skin contact. Wash off any splashes immediately.

2 Phenol should kill microorganisms present, but will not activate enzymes in the plant tissue. Phenol is described on the CLEAPSS Hazcard as TOXIC by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. There is possible risk of irreversible effects as it is a category 3 mutagen and causes burns. The technician making up the solution must wear goggles and disposable nitrile gloves, and refer to the Hazcard for details of what to do if the solid compound is spilled. The 1 % solution should be handled with care, but is much less hazardous than the solid compound.

3 This apparatus shows a boiling tube into which you can introduce different atmospheres to see their effect on a slice of apple or potato. You can introduce gases via the input tube from a gas generator.

Generate carbon dioxide by adding dilute hydrochloric acid to marble chips (calcium carbonate) in a conical flask via a thistle funnel. Add about 50 cm 3 of 0.1 M acid to a 250 cm 3 beaker containing marble chips. The chips will effervesce for a while as the carbon dioxide is released. See CLEAPSS Hazcard: hydrochloric acid is an IRRITANT at concentrations about 2.0 M but is LOW HAZARD at this concentration.

Absorb oxygen from the air in a large conical flask using alkaline pyrogallol (see CLEAPSS Recipe card). Benzene–1,2,3-triol (pyrogallol) is HARMFUL (see CLEAPSS Hazcard). Wear eye protection when preparing the solution. 1 g of benzene-1,2,3-triol is capable of absorbing 190 cm 3 of oxygen, but it does not absorb oxygen quickly. Prepare a saturated solution of sodium hydrogencarbonate using freshly-boiled pure water. Put about 100 cm 3 of this solution in a 500 cm 3 conical flask. Add a little more than 1 g of benzene-1,2,3-triol crystals to the flask. Stopper the container and leave overnight to absorb the oxygen. Displace the deoxygenated air into the apparatus illustrated above by adding water to the flask.

Alternatively, you could add carbon dioxide or nitrogen from pressurised gas cylinders.

4 Hydrochloric acid at this concentration is described on the CLEAPSS Hazcard as an IRRITANT. Wear eye protection when handling.

5 Citric acid (2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid) is described on the CLEAPSS Hazcard as an IRRITANT. Wear eye protection when preparing the solution.

6 Sodium hydrogensulfate(IV) (sodium hydrogensulfite) is described on the CLEAPSS Hazcard as HARMFUL. Solutions less than 0.25 M are LOW HAZARD. However sulfur dioxide gas is given off, which is TOXIC. It is dangerous if mixed with acids. Inhalation of sulfur dioxide by pupils or staff with known breathing difficulties such as asthma may exacerbate these pre-existing conditions. Teachers should be aware of staff and pupils with breathing problems, because the smell of sulfur dioxide can be detected from sulfite solutions.

7 Sodium chloride and sucrose are low hazard


Initial observation

a Cut an apple or potato into eight pieces. Take one piece and crush it in the mortar and pestle. Put the crushed sample on a tile next to an uncrushed piece. Compare the rate at which both samples go brown.

b When the uncrushed piece is brown, cut a small piece from it also break a small piece from it. Note the colour of the freshly-exposed surfaces.

c Note which browns more quickly – the cut or broken surface?

Investigation 1 Is the reaction an effect of microorganisms acting on the tissue?

d Take two slices of apple or potato.

e Soak one in a 1% solution of phenol for 1 minute.

f Soak a similar slice in pure water as a control.

g Use tongs to remove the slices, shake off excess liquids Wash one surface of each with 3-4 drops of benzene-1,2-diol solution. Observe the rate of browning of each slice.

Investigation 2 Do enzymes control the reaction?

h Take four slices of apple or potato. Treat as described below:

  • Immerse in a water bath at 100 °C for 1 minute.
  • Immerse in a water bath at 60 °C for 1 minute.
  • Immerse in a water bath at 40 °C for 1 minute.
  • Immerse in water at room temperature for 1 minute.

i Remove the slices using tongs, and shake off excess liquid. Wash the surfaces with 3-4 drops of benzene-1,2-diol.

j Compare the rates at which the four samples go brown.

Investigation 3 Does the reaction require air or some part of the air?

k Put four slices of apple or potato in four separate boiling tubes.

l Wash the upper surfaces with 3-4 drops of 1% benzene-1,2-diol.

m Use the apparatus in note 3 to hold the apple or potato slices in different atmospheres, as described below:

n Note the rate at which each slice goes brown.

Investigation 4 How does ascorbic acid affect the browning reaction?

o Take six slices of apple or potato.

p Soak each slice in one of the following solutions for 2 minutes:

  • 5% ascorbic acid
  • 3.5% ascorbic acid
  • 2.5% ascorbic acid
  • 2% ascorbic acid
  • 1% ascorbic acid
  • distilled water

q Remove the slices, shake off excess solution, and wash the upper surfaces with 3-4 drops of 1% benzene-1,2-diol.

r Arrange the tubes in sequence to show which goes brown first and which last.

Investigation 5 How do other chemicals affect the browning reaction?

s Take seven slices of apple or potato.

t Soak one in each of the following solutions for 2 minutes:

  • 2% hydrochloric acid
  • 2% citric acid
  • 2% sodium hydrogensulfate(IV)
  • 2% sodium chloride
  • 2% sucrose
  • boiling water
  • cold distilled water

u Remove the slices, shake off excess solution, and wash the upper surfaces with 3-4 drops of 1% benzene-1,2-diol.

v Note how soon each slice goes brown.

Teaching notes

The observation that fruits and some vegetables discolour – usually turning brown – when we cut them is familiar. These investigations allow students to explore what causes the browning, and how to stop it. The control of fruit browning is not just of academic interest it is of commercial importance in the processing of various fruit products. Although we generally find discoloured fruit or vegetables less appealing than those with ‘fresh’ colours, the browning reactions do not involve hazardous microbiological decay and so are safe to investigate in the laboratory.

Some of the methods of stopping fruit discolouration are hard to explain. The reaction is an oxidation, but is catalysed by an enzyme. Some methods or chemicals preventing browning act by preventing oxidation, but how does adding sugar prevent browning, or adding salt?

The reaction taking place in the first stage of browning is an enzyme-catalysed oxidation of benzene-1,2-diol to a quinone. In the second stage, the quinone reacts with water to form benzene-1,2,4-triol. Benzene-1,2,4-triol then reacts with any unchanged quinone, followed by a rearrangement to form a dicyclic compound. This then polymerises further to give highly-coloured pigments of unknown structure.

Ascorbic acid
The investigation with ascorbic acid is a qualitative one. If the students place the samples in order of increased delay period, they will see that delay period increases with increasing concentration of ascorbic acid.

Ascorbic acid is a reducing agent. It acts by reducing the quinone back to the hydroquinone. It is itself oxidised in the process. No pigment forms until all the ascorbic acid is oxidised. The enzyme activity slowly drops as it catalyses the reaction. If there is enough ascorbic acid, the enzyme loses its activity before all the ascorbic acid is oxidised and no discolouration occurs. Ascorbic acid is known as vitamin C and is widely distributed in nature, controlling the redox systems in living cells. It is a micronutrient and so is a very useful antioxidant in the food industry.

Other chemicals
Enzyme activity is affected by pH – with an optimum between pH 6.0 and 8.0 – and is almost completely inhibited below pH 3.0. The normal pH of apples is between 3.0 and 4.0, and that of potatoes is between 5.0 and 6.0 depending on ripeness, variety and time of year.

Adding acids reduces browning. Citric acid and malic acid occur naturally in fruits and so can be added safely to processed fruit without significantly affecting flavour. Hydrochloric acid will reduce browning, but cannot be safely added to food.

Sulfur dioxide is released from sodium hydrogensulfate(IV) and is commonly used as a preservative in food. It is a reducing agent and acts by preventing colour formation. Some people report a sensitivity to this chemical as a preservative in their foods.

Sodium chloride inhibits the enzyme by raising the ionic concentration.
Sucrose acts by reducing the solubility of oxygen in the surface tissues.

Health & Safety checked, May 2009


Download the student sheet Investigating what makes fruit go brown (106 KB) with questions and answers

Web links
This practical on the SAPS website relates to the fruit browning reaction and involves extraction of the enzyme (catechol oxidase) from bananas and investigating how the enzyme action can be inhibited by lead. It might make an interesting extension in this context – considering why lead is not used to preserve the natural colours of food.

(Website accessed October 2011)

© 2019, Royal Society of Biology, 1 Naoroji Street, London WC1X 0GB Registered Charity No. 277981, Incorporated by Royal Charter

Fruit Family List 🍋🥝

ADDucation&rsquos fruit family list includes some fruits which are commonly believed to be vegetables (avocados, gourds and nightshades) and Rhubarb which is commonly believed to be a fruit but is a vegetable. Our fruit family list shows the relationships between a wide range of common fruits along with their latin botanical names.

FAQs About Names in Fruit Family List

What is a plant taxonomy?

A plant taxonomy is its classification, written in Latin. It shows the hierarchy and relationships between species. Taxonomy is divided into various classes including the plant family and genus.

What’s the difference between Raisins, Currants and Sultanas?

They are all dried grapes but each have different culinary uses and generally not interchangeable in recipes:

  • Raisins: Made from dried white Moscatel grapes, deep red in color and bigger and sweeter than currants and will soak up flavors. Used in Mince pies, Christmas cake and Christmas pudding
  • Currants (aka Corinth raisins, Zante currants): Small black, shrivelled dried fruit with a sweet flavor. Used in Spotted Dick and Eccles cake
  • Sultanas: Made from dried white grapes, are golden in color and sweeter than currants. Sultanas are plumper and do not soak up other flavors as readily as raisins.

ADDucation Tips: Click column headings with arrows to sort fruit family list. Reload page for original sort order. Resize your browser to full screen and/or zoom out to display as many columns as possible. Click the ➕ icon to reveal any hidden columns. Start typing in the Filter table box to find anything inside the table of fruit family list.

Notes: In botanical names of fruits x denotes a hybrid. * Although Rhubarb is used as a fruit it&rsquos actually a vegetable.

ADDucation Pages Related to Fruit Family List:

4 responses to “Fruit Family List 🍋🥝”

All types of fruits and vegetables and plants&trees syntific names &family’s list in one order like a one box

Thanks for the suggestions. That’s a lot of work but we agree adding the scientific names would be good. We do already have separate lists for trees, nuts and seeds so maybe we could make a Mega list of these in the future.

Aren’t tomatoes botanically berry-type fruits? Yes, they are considered culinary vegetables, but they’re still fruits, aren’t they?

Hi Hector, thanks for your feedback. You are correct, scientifically speaking Tomatoes are fruits. Cooks and scientists like to argue the point. Since this list is in the Mankind and Nature category (rather than the Science and Technology category) we’ll leave tomatoes out of this list because it is included in our Vegetable family names list Maybe we should add a footnote to both lists?

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Classification of Fruit Types

The structure known as a "fruit" is found only in the members of the Angiosperms. A fruit developed solely from the ovary and its contents is known as a true fruit. A fruit developed from the ovary and its contents plus additional parts of the flower such as the receptacle, petals, and sepals is known as an accessory fruit (e.g. pineapple). The following is a common classification of fruit types. (see pp. 489-493 in Plant Systematics, 2nd ed., for additional information).

I. Simple Fruits - Fruits formed from 1 pistil. They may be either true or accessory fruits.

A. Dry Fruits : - Fruits in which the coat becomes dry at maturity.

1. Dehiscent Fruits - Dry fruits which at maturity open by definite natural means to shed the contained seeds.

i. Legume A dry dehiscent fruit developed from 1 carpel and at maturity splitting along both the dorsal and ventral sutures. (beans, peas).

ii. Follicle A dry dehiscent fruit developed from 1 carpel and at maturity splitting along only one suture. (larkspur, columbine)

iii. Capsule A dry dehiscent fruit developed from several carpels.

(a) Loculicidal capsule - one which splits along the outer median line. (lilies).

(b) Septicidal capsule - one which splits along the septa and opens at the top. (yucca, agave).

(c) Silique - a special long slender capsule of 2 carpels. (mustards).

(d) Silicle - a special short broad capsule of 2 carpels. (mustards).

(e) Pyxis - a capsule which has circumscissle dehiscence. (plantain, amaranths, purslane).

(f) Poricidal capsule - one which opens with round holes. (poppies).

2. Indehiscent fruits - Dry fruits which do not open when mature to shed their seeds. Many of this group are one seeded fruits.

i. Achene - A one-seeded, dry, indehiscent fruit the one seed is attached to the fruit wall at a single point. (buttercups, dandelion, sunflower).

ii. Nut - A dry, indehiscent, one seeded fruit similar to an achene but with the wall greatly thickened and hardened. (beech, chestnut, oak, hazel walnut and hickory - note: because of extrafloral bracts, or "husk", the latter two fruits are sometimes called "drupes").

iii. Samara - A one- or two-seeded dry, indehiscent fruit in which part of the fruit wall grows out into a wing. (elm, maple, ash).

iv. Grain - A one-seeded dry, indehiscent fruit in which the fruit wall and the seed coat are fused. (wheat, corn, grasses).

v. Schizocarp - A fruit formed from several carpels, each carpel of this pistil enclosing a single ovule, at maturity the carpels separate as separate indehiscent fruits. (mallow, wild carrot, dill).

B. Fleshy Fruits - A fruit in which the wall becomes soft and fleshy as it matures.

1. Drupe - A one-seeded simple fruit developed from a superior ovary in which the innermost portion of the wall (endocarp) becomes hard and stony, the outermost part (exocarp) becomes a relatively thin skin, and the middle portion between the skin and the stone (mesocarp) becomes either fleshy or fibrous. (cherry, coconut, walnut and hickory - note: because of extrafloral bracts, or "husk", the latter two fruits are sometimes called "drupes", but best called "nuts").

2. Berry - A simple fruit in which the ovary wall or at least its inner portions become enlarged and usually juicy. (grape, banana, gooseberry).

Two special types of berry-like fruits may be singled out for special consideration.

(a) Hesperidium - This is a special type of berry in which a leathery rind forms the interior of the fruit divided by septa, indicating the number of carpels. (citrus).

(b) Pepo - This is a special type of berry in which a relatively hard rind is formed the interior of fruit not divided by septa. (watermelon, gourds, squash).

3. Pome - An accessory fleshy fruit formed by a group of carpels more or less firmly united with each other and surrounded by and united to the floral tube or receptacle. (apple, pear, mountain ash).

II. Aggregate Fruit - A fruit formed by the development of a number of pistils from the same flower. The individual units may be berries or other specific types. (raspberry, strawberry).

III. Multiple Fruit - A fruit formed by the development of a number of pistils often with accessory parts, the pistils being from a number of flowers. (mulberry, fig).


In botany, a fertilized, fully-grown, and ripened ovary is a fruit. As the seed develops, the walls of the ovary in which it forms thicken and form the fruit, enlarging as the seeds grow. Many foods commonly-called vegetables are actually fruit. Eggplants, zucchini, string beans, and bell peppers are all technically fruit because they contain seeds and are derived from the thick ovary tissue. Acorns are nuts and winged, maple whirligigs (whose botanical name is samara) are also fruit. Botanists classify fruit into more than two dozen different categories, only a few of which are actually fleshy and sweet.

Mature fruit can be fleshy or dry. Fleshy fruit include the familiar berries, peaches, apples, grapes, and tomatoes. Rice, wheat, and nuts are examples of dry fruit. Another distinction is that not all fruits are derived from the ovary. For instance, strawberries are derived from the receptacle, while apples are derived from the pericarp, or hypanthium. Some fruits are derived from separate ovaries in a single flower, such as the raspberry. Other fruits, such as the pineapple, form from clusters of flowers. Additionally, some fruits, like watermelon and oranges, have rinds.

Regardless of how they are formed, fruits are an agent of seed dispersal. The variety of shapes and characteristics reflect the mode of dispersal, whether it be wind, water, or animals. Wind carries the light dry fruit of trees and dandelions. Water transports floating coconuts. Some fruits attract herbivores with color or perfume, or as food. Once eaten, tough, undigested seeds are dispersed through the herbivore&rsquos feces. Other fruits have burs and hooks to cling to fur and hitch rides on animals.

Figure (PageIndex<1>): Wind dispersal: The winged shape of Alsomitra macrocarpa&rsquos seeds allow them to use wind for dispersal. They can, therefore, glide for great distances. Figure (PageIndex<1>): Fruit dispersal: A fruit&rsquos distinctive shape and specialized characteristics will determine its dispersal mechanism.