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Help me identify this animal from Bangladesh

Help me identify this animal from Bangladesh


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I have come across this animal in a facebook group. After one group member identified it as Asian palm civet, I looked at some google images, I am not convinced. Judging from google images, this animal doesn't look like any of the common civet species found in Bangladesh.
Location: Noakhali, Bangladesh


Looks like the Large Indian civet. Notice the size and the fur coloration pattern on the neck.

From wikipedia:

The large Indian civet ranges from Nepal, northeast India, Bhutan, Bangladesh to Myanmar, Thailand, the Malay peninsula and Singapore to Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and China.[1]

Looks like it is found in eastern parts of Bangladesh including Noakhali district - the place where the picture was taken.


Is it a Small Indian Civet?

From Wikipedia: The small Indian civet has a rather coarse fur that is brownish grey to pale yellowish brown, with usually several longitudinal black or brown bands on the back and longitudinal rows of spots on the sides. Usually there are five or six distinct bands on the back and four or five rows of spots on each side. Some have indistinct lines and spots, with the dorsal bands wanting. Generally there are two dark stripes from behind the ear to the shoulders, and often a third in front, crossing the throat. Its underfur is brown or grey, often grey on the upper parts of the body and brown on the lower. The grey hairs on the upper parts are often tipped with black. The head is grey or brownish grey, the chin often brown. The ears are short and rounded with a dusky mark behind each ear, and one in front of each eye. The feet are brown or black. Its tail has alternating black and whitish rings, seven to nine of each colour. It is 21-23 in (53-58 cm) from head to body with a 15-17 in (38-43 cm) long tapering tail.


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Animal Characterization Based on Body Symmetry

At a very basic level of classification, true animals can be largely divided into three groups based on the type of symmetry of their body plan: radially symmetrical, bilaterally symmetrical, and asymmetrical. Asymmetry is a unique feature of Parazoa (Figure 2a). Only a few animal groups display radial symmetry. All types of symmetry are well suited to meet the unique demands of a particular animal’s lifestyle.

Radial symmetry is the arrangement of body parts around a central axis, as is seen in a drinking glass or pie. It results in animals having top and bottom surfaces but no left and right sides, or front or back. The two halves of a radially symmetrical animal may be described as the side with a mouth or “oral side,” and the side without a mouth (the “aboral side”). This form of symmetry marks the body plans of animals in the phyla Ctenophora and Cnidaria, including jellyfish and adult sea anemones (Figure 2b and 2c). Radial symmetry equips these sea creatures (which may be sedentary or only capable of slow movement or floating) to experience the environment equally from all directions.

Figure 2. The (a) sponge is asymmetrical. The (b) jellyfish and (c) anemone are radially symmetrical, and the (d) butterfly is bilaterally symmetrical. (credit a: modification of work by Andrew Turner credit b: modification of work by Robert Freiburger credit c: modification of work by Samuel Chow credit d: modification of work by Cory Zanker)

Figure 3. The bilaterally symmetrical human body can be divided into planes.

Bilateral symmetry involves the division of the animal through a sagittal plane, resulting in two mirror image, right and left halves, such as those of a butterfly (Figure 2d), crab, or human body. Animals with bilateral symmetry have a “head” and “tail” (anterior vs. posterior), front and back (dorsal vs. ventral), and right and left sides (Figure 3). All true animals except those with radial symmetry are bilaterally symmetrical. The evolution of bilateral symmetry that allowed for the formation of anterior and posterior (head and tail) ends promoted a phenomenon called cephalization, which refers to the collection of an organized nervous system at the animal’s anterior end. In contrast to radial symmetry, which is best suited for stationary or limited-motion lifestyles, bilateral symmetry allows for streamlined and directional motion. In evolutionary terms, this simple form of symmetry promoted active mobility and increased sophistication of resource-seeking and predator-prey relationships.

Animals in the phylum Echinodermata (such as sea stars, sand dollars, and sea urchins) display radial symmetry as adults, but their larval stages exhibit bilateral symmetry. This is termed secondary radial symmetry. They are believed to have evolved from bilaterally symmetrical animals thus, they are classified as bilaterally symmetrical.

Link to Learning

Watch this video to see a quick sketch of the different types of body symmetry.


Contents

The spelling of "woman" in English has progressed over the past millennium from wīfmann [4] to wīmmann to wumman, and finally, the modern spelling woman. [5] In Old English, wīfmann meant "woman" (literally "woman-person"), whereas wer meant "man". Mann had a gender-neutral meaning of "human", corresponding to Modern English "person" or "someone" however, subsequent to the Norman Conquest, man began to be used more in reference to "male human", and by the late 13th century it had begun to eclipse usage of the older term wer. [6] The medial labial consonants f and m in wīfmann coalesced into the modern form "woman", while the initial element wīf, which had also meant "woman", underwent semantic narrowing to the sense of a married woman ("wife").

It is a popular misconception that the term "woman" is etymologically connected to "womb". [7] "Womb" derives from the Old English word wamb meaning "belly, uterus" [8] (cognate to the modern German colloquial term "Wamme" from Old High German wamba for "belly, paunch, lap"). [9] [10]

Womanhood is the period in a human female's life after she has passed through childhood, puberty, and adolescence. [11] Different countries have different laws, but age 18 is frequently considered the age of majority (the age at which a person is legally considered an adult).

The word woman can be used generally, to mean any female human, or specifically, to mean an adult female human as contrasted with girl. The word girl originally meant "young person of either sex" in English [12] it was only around the beginning of the 16th century that it came to mean specifically a female child. [13] The term girl is sometimes used colloquially to refer to a young or unmarried woman however, during the early 1970s, feminists challenged such use because the use of the word to refer to a fully grown woman may cause offence. In particular, previously common terms such as office girl are no longer widely used. Conversely, in certain cultures which link family honor with female virginity, the word girl (or its equivalent in other languages) is still used to refer to a never-married woman in this sense it is used in a fashion roughly analogous to the more-or-less obsolete English maid or maiden.

There are various words used to refer to the quality of being a woman. The term "womanhood" merely means the state of being a woman, having passed the menarche "femininity" is used to refer to a set of typical female qualities associated with a certain attitude to gender roles "womanliness" is like "femininity", but is usually associated with a different view of gender roles. "Distaff" is an archaic adjective derived from women's conventional role as a spinner, now used only as a deliberate archaism.

Menarche, the onset of menstruation, occurs on average at age 12–13. Many cultures have rites of passage to symbolize a girl's coming of age, such as confirmation in some branches of Christianity, [14] bat mitzvah in Judaism, or a custom of a special celebration for a certain birthday (generally between 12 and 21), like the quinceañera of Latin America.

Trans women have a male sex assignment at birth that does not align with their gender identity, while intersex women may have sex characteristics that do not fit typical notions of female biology. [15] [16]

The earliest women whose names are known through archaeology include:

    (c. 3200 BCE), the wife of Narmer and the first queen of ancient Egypt. [17][18] (c. 3000 BCE), consort and regent of ancient Egypt during the first dynasty. She may have been ruler of Egypt in her own right. [19][20] (c. 2700 BCE), also lived in Egypt and is the earliest known female physician and scientist. [21] (c. 2600 BCE), a physician in Ancient Egypt. [22][23] (c. 2600 BCE), or Shubad – queen of Ur whose tomb was discovered with many expensive artifacts. Other known pre-Sargonic queens of Ur (royal wives) include Ashusikildigir, Ninbanda, and Gansamannu. [24] (circa 2,500 BCE), a taverness from Kish chosen by the Nippur priesthood to become hegemonic ruler of Sumer, and in later ages deified as "Kubaba". (c. 2400 BCE), Akkadian queen, wife of Sargon of Akkad and mother of Enheduanna. [25][26] (c. 2384 BCE), prominent and influential queen of Lugalanda of Lagash. Other known pre-Sargonic queens of the first Lagash dynasty include Menbara-abzu, Ashume'eren, Ninkhilisug, Dimtur, and Shagshag, and the names of several princesses are also known. (c. 2285 BCE), [27][28] the high priestess of the temple of the Moon God in the Sumerian city-state of Ur and possibly the first known poet and first named author of either gender. [29] (c. 1775 BCE), king Zimrilim's consort and queen of the Syrian city-state of Mari. During her husband's absence, she ruled as regent of Mari and enjoyed extensive administrative powers as queen. [30]

In terms of biology, the female sex organs are involved in the reproductive system, whereas the secondary sex characteristics are involved in breastfeeding children and attracting a mate. [31] [32] The ovaries, in addition to their regulatory function of producing hormones, produce female gametes called ova which, when fertilized by male gametes (sperm), form new genetic individuals. The uterus is an organ with tissue to protect and nurture the developing fetus and muscle to expel it when giving birth. The vagina is used in copulation and birthing, although the term vagina is often colloquially and incorrectly used in the English language for the vulva (or external female genitalia), [33] [34] which consists of (in addition to the vaginal opening) the labia, the clitoris, and the female urethra. The mammary glands are hypothesized to have evolved from apocrine-like glands to produce milk, a nutritious secretion that is the most distinctive characteristic of mammals, along with live birth. [35] In mature women the breast is generally more prominent than in most other mammals this prominence, not necessary for milk production, is thought to be at least partially the result of sexual selection. [32]

Normally cells from females contain two X chromosomes, and cells from males contain an X and a Y chromosome. [36] During early fetal development embryo morphology of both sexes is similar until about week 6 or 7 when gonads differentiate into testes in males due to the action of the Y chromosome. Sex differentiation proceeds in females in a way that is independent of gondal hormones. [37] Because humans inherit mitochondrial DNA only from the mother's ovum, genealogical researchers can trace maternal lineage far back in time.

Although fewer females than males are born (the ratio is around 1:1.05), newborn girls are more likely to reach their first birthday than are boys and women typically have a longer life expectancy of six to eight years, although in some areas gender-based discrimination against women has lowered female life expectancy to lower or equal to that of males. Out of the total human population in 2015, there were 101.8 men for every 100 women. The life expectancy differences are partly due to inherent biological advantages, but they also reflect behavioral differences between men and women. The gap is narrowing to some extent in some developed countries, possibly due to increased smoking among women and declining rates of cardiovascular disease among men. The World Health Organization writes that it is "important to note that the extra years of life for women are not always lived in good health." [38] [39] [40]

Puberty is the process of physical changes by which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction to enable fertilization. It usually takes place between the ages 10 – 16. It is initiated by hormonal signals from the brain to the gonads - either the ovaries or the testes. In response to the signals, the gonads produce hormones that stimulate libido and the growth, function, and transformation of the brain, bones, muscle, blood, skin, hair, breasts, and sexual organs. Physical growth—height and weight—accelerates in the first half of puberty and is completed when the child has developed an adult body. The major landmark of girls' puberty is menarche, the onset of menstruation, which occurs on average between ages 12–13. [41] [42] [43] [44]

Most girls go through menarche and are then able to become pregnant and bear children. This generally requires internal fertilization of her eggs with the sperm of a man through sexual intercourse, though artificial insemination or the surgical implantation of an existing embryo is also possible (see reproductive technology).

There are some diseases that primarily affect women, such as lupus. Also, there are some sex-related illnesses that are found more frequently or exclusively in women, e.g., breast cancer, cervical cancer, or ovarian cancer. Women and men may have different symptoms of an illness and may also respond to medical treatment differently. This area of medical research is studied by gender-based medicine. [45] The study of female reproduction and reproductive organs is called gynaecology. [46]

The issue of women's health has been taken up by many feminists, especially where reproductive health is concerned. Women's health is positioned within a wider body of knowledge cited by, amongst others, the World Health Organization, which places importance on gender as a social determinant of health. [47]

Maternal mortality or maternal death is defined by WHO as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes." [48] In 2008, noting that each year more than 100,000 women die of complications of pregnancy and childbirth and at least seven million experience serious health problems while 50 million more have adverse health consequences after childbirth, the World Health Organization urged midwife training to strengthen maternal and newborn health services. To support the upgrading of midwifery skills the WHO established a midwife training program, Action for Safe Motherhood. [49]

About 99% of maternal deaths occur in developing countries. More than half of them occur in sub-Saharan Africa and almost one third in South Asia. The main causes of maternal mortality include pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, unsafe abortion, pregnancy complications from malaria and HIV/AIDS, and severe bleeding and infections following childbirth. [50] Most European countries, Australia, Japan, and Singapore are very safe in regard to childbirth. [51]

In 1990 the US ranked 12th of the 14 developed countries that were analyzed and since that time the death rates of every country have steadily improved while the US rate has spiked dramatically. While the others that were analyzed in 1990 show a 2017 death rate of fewer than 10 deaths per every 100,000 live births, the U.S. rate rose to 26.4. Furthermore, for every one of the 700 to 900 women who die in the U.S. each year during pregnancy or childbirth, 70 experience significant complications, totaling more than one percent of all births. [52] [53]

(. ) the human rights of women include their right to have control over and decide freely and responsibly on matters related to their sexuality, including sexual and reproductive health, free of coercion, discrimination and violence. Equal relationships between women and men in matters of sexual relations and reproduction, including full respect for the integrity of the person, require mutual respect, consent and shared responsibility for sexual behavior and its consequences.

The World Health Organization reports that based on data from 2010–2014, 56 million induced abortions occurred worldwide each year (25% of all pregnancies). Of those, about 25 million were considered as unsafe. The WHO reports that in developed regions about 30 women die for every 100,000 unsafe abortions and that number rises to 220 deaths per 100,000 unsafe abortions in developing regions and 520 deaths per 100,000 unsafe abortions in sub-Saharan Africa. The WHO ascribes these deaths to:

  • restrictive laws
  • poor availability of services
  • high cost
  • stigma
  • conscientious objection of health-care providers
  • unnecessary requirements, such as mandatory waiting periods, mandatory counselling, provision of misleading information, third-party authorization, and medically unnecessary tests that delay care. [55]

In recent history, gender roles have changed greatly. At some earlier points in history, children's occupational aspirations starting at a young age differed according to gender. [56] Traditionally, middle class women were involved in domestic tasks emphasizing child care. For poorer women, especially working class women, although this often remained an ideal, [ specify ] economic necessity compelled them to seek employment outside the home. Many of the occupations that were available to them were lower in pay than those available to men. [ citation needed ]

As changes in the labor market for women came about, availability of employment changed from only "dirty", long hour factory jobs to "cleaner", more respectable office jobs where more education was demanded. Women's participation in the U.S. labor force rose from 6% in 1900 to 23% in 1923. These shifts in the labor force led to changes in the attitudes of women at work, allowing for the revolution which resulted in women becoming career and education oriented. [ citation needed ]

In the 1970s, many female academics, including scientists, avoided having children. Throughout the 1980s, institutions tried to equalize conditions for men and women in the workplace. Even so, the inequalities at home hampered women's opportunities: professional women were still generally considered responsible for domestic labor and child care, which limited the time and energy they could devote to their careers. Until the early 20th century, U.S. women's colleges required their women faculty members to remain single, on the grounds that a woman could not carry on two full-time professions at once. According to Schiebinger, "Being a scientist and a wife and a mother is a burden in society that expects women more often than men to put family ahead of career." (p. 93). [57]

Movements advocate equality of opportunity for both sexes and equal rights irrespective of gender. Through a combination of economic changes and the efforts of the feminist movement, in recent decades women in many societies have gained access to careers beyond the traditional homemaker. Despite these advances, modern women in Western society still face challenges in the workplace as well as with the topics of education, violence, health care, politics, and motherhood, and others. Sexism can be a main concern and barrier for women almost anywhere, though its forms, perception, and gravity vary between societies and social classes. There has been an increase in the endorsement of egalitarian gender roles in the home by both women and men. [58] [ failed verification ]

Although a greater number of women are seeking higher education, their salaries are often less than those of men. CBS News said in 2005 that in the United States women who are ages 30 to 44 and hold a university degree make 62 percent of what similarly qualified men do, a lower rate than in all but three of the 19 countries for which numbers are available. Some Western nations with greater inequality in pay are Germany, New Zealand and Switzerland. [59]

Violence against women

any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.

and identifies three forms of such violence: that which occurs in the family, that which occurs within the general community, and that which is perpetrated or condoned by the State. It also states that "violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women". [61]

Violence against women remains a widespread problem, fueled, especially outside the West, by patriarchal social values, lack of adequate laws, and lack of enforcement of existing laws. Social norms that exist in many parts of the world hinder progress towards protecting women from violence. For example, according to surveys by UNICEF, the percentage of women aged 15–49 who think that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife under certain circumstances is as high as 90% in Afghanistan and Jordan, 87% in Mali, 86% in Guinea and Timor-Leste, 81% in Laos, and 80% in the Central African Republic. [62] A 2010 survey conducted by the Pew Research Center found that stoning as a punishment for adultery was supported by 82% of respondents in Egypt and Pakistan, 70% in Jordan, 56% Nigeria, and 42% in Indonesia. [63]

Specific forms of violence that affect women include female genital mutilation, sex trafficking, forced prostitution, forced marriage, rape, sexual harassment, honor killings, acid throwing, and dowry related violence. Governments can be complicit in violence against women, such as when stoning is used as a legal punishment, mostly for women accused of adultery. [64]

There have also been many forms of violence against women which have been prevalent historically, notably the burning of witches, the sacrifice of widows (such as sati) and foot binding. The prosecution of women accused of witchcraft has a long tradition for example, during the early modern period (between the 15th and 18th centuries), witch trials were common in Europe and in the European colonies in North America. Today, there remain regions of the world (such as parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, rural North India, and Papua New Guinea) where belief in witchcraft is held by many people, and women accused of being witches are subjected to serious violence. [65] [66] [67] In addition, there are also countries which have criminal legislation against the practice of witchcraft. In Saudi Arabia, witchcraft remains a crime punishable by death, and in 2011 the country beheaded a woman for 'witchcraft and sorcery'. [68] [69]

It is also the case that certain forms of violence against women have been recognized as criminal offenses only during recent decades, and are not universally prohibited, in that many countries continue to allow them. This is especially the case with marital rape. [70] [71] In the Western World, there has been a trend towards ensuring gender equality within marriage and prosecuting domestic violence, but in many parts of the world women still lose significant legal rights when entering a marriage. [72]

Sexual violence against women greatly increases during times of war and armed conflict, during military occupation, or ethnic conflicts most often in the form of war rape and sexual slavery. Contemporary examples of sexual violence during war include rape during the Armenian Genocide, rape during the Bangladesh Liberation War, rape in the Bosnian War, rape during the Rwandan genocide, and rape during Second Congo War. In Colombia, the armed conflict has also resulted in increased sexual violence against women. [73] The most recent case was the sexual jihad done by ISIL where 5000–7000 Yazidi and Christian girls and children were sold into sexual slavery during the genocide and rape of Yazidi and Christian women, some of which jumped to their death from Mount Sinjar, as described in a witness statement. [74]

Laws and policies on violence against women vary by jurisdiction. In the European Union, sexual harassment and human trafficking are subject to directives. [75] [76]

Women in different parts of the world dress in different ways, with their choices of clothing being influenced by local culture, religious tenets, traditions, social norms, and fashion trends, amongst other factors. Different societies have different ideas about modesty. However, in many jurisdictions, women's choices in regard to dress are not always free, with laws limiting what they may or may not wear. This is especially the case in regard to Islamic dress. While certain jurisdictions legally mandate such clothing (the wearing of the headscarf), other countries forbid or restrict the wearing of certain hijab attire (such as burqa/covering the face) in public places (one such country is France – see French ban on face covering). These laws- both those mandating and those prohibiting certain articles of dress- are highly controversial. [77]

The total fertility rate (TFR) – the average number of children born to a woman over her lifetime — differs significantly between different regions of the world. In 2016, the highest estimated TFR was in Niger (6.62 children born per woman) and the lowest in Singapore (0.82 children/woman). [79] While most Sub-Saharan African countries have a high TFR, which creates problems due to lack of resources and contributes to overpopulation, most Western countries currently experience a sub replacement fertility rate which may lead to population ageing and population decline.

In many parts of the world, there has been a change in family structure over the past few decades. For instance, in the West, there has been a trend of moving away from living arrangements that include the extended family to those which only consist of the nuclear family. There has also been a trend to move from marital fertility to non-marital fertility. Children born outside marriage may be born to cohabiting couples or to single women. While births outside marriage are common and fully accepted in some parts of the world, in other places they are highly stigmatized, with unmarried mothers facing ostracism, including violence from family members, and in extreme cases even honor killings. [80] [81] In addition, sex outside marriage remains illegal in many countries (such as Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, [82] Afghanistan, [83] [84] Iran, [84] Kuwait, [85] Maldives, [86] Morocco, [87] Oman, [88] Mauritania, [89] United Arab Emirates, [90] [91] Sudan, [92] and Yemen [93] ).

The social role of the mother differs between cultures. In many parts of the world, women with dependent children are expected to stay at home and dedicate all their energy to child raising, while in other places mothers most often return to paid work (see working mother and stay-at-home mother).

Particular religious doctrines have specific stipulations relating to gender roles, social and private interaction between the sexes, appropriate dressing attire for women, and various other issues affecting women and their position in society. In many countries, these religious teachings influence the criminal law, or the family law of those jurisdictions (see Sharia law, for example). The relation between religion, law and gender equality has been discussed by international organizations. [94]

Single-sex education has traditionally been dominant and is still highly relevant. Universal education, meaning state-provided primary and secondary education independent of gender, is not yet a global norm, even if it is assumed in most developed countries. In some Western countries, women have surpassed men at many levels of education. For example, in the United States in 2005/2006, women earned 62% of associate degrees, 58% of bachelor's degrees, 60% of master's degrees, and 50% of doctorates. [95] [96]

The educational gender gap in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries has been reduced over the last 30 years. Younger women today are far more likely to have completed a tertiary qualification: in 19 of the 30 OECD countries, more than twice as many women aged 25 to 34 have completed tertiary education than have women aged 55 to 64. In 21 of 27 OECD countries with comparable data, the number of women graduating from university-level programmes is equal to or exceeds that of men. 15-year-old girls tend to show much higher expectations for their careers than boys of the same age. [97] While women account for more than half of university graduates in several OECD countries, they receive only 30% of tertiary degrees granted in science and engineering fields, and women account for only 25% to 35% of researchers in most OECD countries. [98]

Research shows that while women are studying at prestigious universities at the same rate as men they are not being given the same chance to join the faculty. Sociologist Harriet Zuckerman has observed that the more prestigious an institute is, the more difficult and time-consuming it will be for women to obtain a faculty position there. In 1989, Harvard University tenured its first woman in chemistry, Cynthia Friend, and in 1992 its first woman in physics, Melissa Franklin. She also observed that women were more likely to hold their first professional positions as instructors and lecturers while men are more likely to work first in tenure positions. According to Smith and Tang, as of 1989, 65 percent of men and only 40 percent of women held tenured positions and only 29 percent of all scientists and engineers employed as assistant professors in four-year colleges and universities were women. [99]

In 1992, women earned 9 percent of the PhDs awarded in engineering, but only one percent of those women became professors. In 1995, 11 percent of professors in science and engineering were women. In relation, only 311 deans of engineering schools were women, which is less than 1 percent of the total. Even in psychology, a degree in which women earn the majority of PhDs, they hold a significant amount of fewer tenured positions, roughly 19 percent in 1994. [100]

Literacy

World literacy is lower for females than for males. The CIA World Factbook presents an estimate from 2010 which shows that 80% of women are literate, compared to 88.6% of men (aged 15 and over). Literacy rates are lowest in South and West Asia, and in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. [101]

Women are underrepresented in government in most countries. In January 2019, the global average of women in national assemblies was 24.3%. [103] Suffrage is the civil right to vote, and women's suffrage movements have a long historic timeline. For example, women's suffrage in the United States was achieved gradually, first at state and local levels in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, then in 1920 when women in the US received universal suffrage with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Some Western countries were slow to allow women to vote, notably Switzerland, where women gained the right to vote in federal elections in 1971, and in the canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden women were granted the right to vote on local issues only in 1991, when the canton was forced to do so by the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland [104] [105] and Liechtenstein, in 1984, through a women's suffrage referendum.

Women have, throughout history, made contributions to science, literature and art. One area where women have been permitted most access historically was that of obstetrics and gynecology (prior to the 18th century, caring for pregnant women in Europe was undertaken by women from the mid 18th century onwards, medical monitoring of pregnant women started to require rigorous formal education, to which women did not generally have access, and thus the practice was largely transferred to men). [106] [107]

Writing was generally also considered acceptable for upper-class women, although achieving success as a female writer in a male-dominated world could be very difficult as a result of several women writers adopted a male pen name (e.g. George Sand, George Eliot). [ citation needed ]

Women have been composers, songwriters, instrumental performers, singers, conductors, music scholars, music educators, music critics/music journalists and other musical professions. There are music movements, [ clarification needed ] events and genres related to women, women's issues and feminism. [ citation needed ] In the 2010s, while women comprise a significant proportion of popular music and classical music singers, and a significant proportion of songwriters (many of them being singer-songwriters), there are few women record producers, rock critics and rock instrumentalists. Although there have been a huge number of women composers in classical music, from the Medieval period to the present day, women composers are significantly underrepresented in the commonly performed classical music repertoire, music history textbooks and music encyclopedias for example, in the Concise Oxford History of Music, Clara Schumann is one of the only female composers who is mentioned.

Women comprise a significant proportion of instrumental soloists in classical music and the percentage of women in orchestras is increasing. A 2015 article on concerto soloists in major Canadian orchestras, however, indicated that 84% of the soloists with the Orchestre Symphonique de Montreal were men. In 2012, women still made up just 6% of the top-ranked Vienna Philharmonic orchestra. Women are less common as instrumental players in popular music genres such as rock and heavy metal, although there have been a number of notable female instrumentalists and all-female bands. Women are particularly underrepresented in extreme metal genres. [108] Women are also underrepresented in orchestral conducting, music criticism/music journalism, music producing, and sound engineering. While women were discouraged from composing in the 19th century, and there are few women musicologists, women became involved in music education ". to such a degree that women dominated [this field] during the later half of the 19th century and well into the 20th century." [109]

According to Jessica Duchen, a music writer for London's The Independent, women musicians in classical music are ". too often judged for their appearances, rather than their talent" and they face pressure ". to look sexy onstage and in photos." [110] Duchen states that while "[t]here are women musicians who refuse to play on their looks, . the ones who do tend to be more materially successful." [110]

According to the UK's Radio 3 editor, Edwina Wolstencroft, the classical music industry has long been open to having women in performance or entertainment roles, but women are much less likely to have positions of authority, such as being the leader of an orchestra. [111] In popular music, while there are many women singers recording songs, there are very few women behind the audio console acting as music producers, the individuals who direct and manage the recording process. [112]

The glyph (♀) for the planet and Roman goddess Venus, or Aphrodite in Greek, is the symbol used in biology for the female sex. [113] [114] [115] In ancient alchemy, the Venus symbol stood for copper and was associated with femininity. [115]

Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women and girls. Although femininity is socially constructed, [116] some behaviors considered feminine are biologically influenced. [117] [118] [119] [120] to what extent femininity is biologically or socially influenced is subject to debate. [121] [122] [123] It is distinct from the definition of the biological female sex, [124] [125] as both males and females can exhibit feminine traits.


Go from general to specific

Anyone can learn biology, but it's not always easy. Biology doesn't require as much math as physics or astronomy, but it can still be challenging to understand biological systems and processes. One of the keys to effective learning of biology is to master general concepts before tackling specific ones. For example, before you can understand the Krebs cycle you need to have a basic understanding of animal cell structure. Study each new biological concept and process thoroughly before moving on to the next level.


Related Biology Terms

  • Common ancestor – A common ancestor is an individual or species from which multiple individuals or species evolved.
  • Evolution – The process by which populations change over time, due to random mutation and the pressures of natural selection.
  • Extinction – The process by which a species ceases to exist after the death of its last member. Most species that have lived on Earth to date are now extinct.

1. Which of the following is NOT true of arthropods?
A. They have exoskeletons made of chitin.
B. They are symmetrical, having the same features on one side of their body as the other.
C. They colonized land long before vertebrate animals did.
D. None of the above.

2. Which of the following is NOT a type of arthropod?
A. Hexapods
B. Crustaceans
C. Cephalopods
D. Myriapods

3. Which of the following is NOT an arthropod?
A. A scorpion
B. A snail
C. A dust mite
D. A crab


The evolution of reproduction

An examination of the way in which organisms have changed since their initial unicellular condition in primeval times shows an increase in multicellularity and therefore an increase in the size of both plants and animals. After cell reproduction evolved into multicellular growth, the multicellular organism evolved a means of reproducing itself that is best described as life-cycle reproduction. Size increase has been accompanied by many mechanical requirements that have necessitated a selection for increased efficiency the result has been a great increase in the complexity of organisms. In terms of reproduction this means a great increase in the permutations of cell reproduction during the process of evolutionary development.

Size increase also means a longer life cycle, and with it a great diversity of patterns at different stages of the cycle. This is because each part of the life cycle is adaptive in that, through natural selection, certain characteristics have evolved for each stage that enable the organism to survive. The most extreme examples are those forms with two or more separate phases of their life cycle separated by a metamorphosis, as in caterpillars and butterflies these phases may be shortened or extended by natural selection, as has occurred in different species of coelenterates.

To reproduce efficiently in order to contribute effectively to subsequent generations is another factor that has evolved through natural selection. For instance, an organism can produce vast quantities of eggs of which, possibly by neglect, only a small percent will survive. On the other hand, an organism can produce very few or perhaps one egg, which, as it develops, will be cared for, thereby greatly increasing its chances for survival. These are two strategies of reproduction each has its advantages and disadvantages. Many other considerations of the natural history and structure of the organism determine, through natural selection, the strategy that is best for a particular species one of these is that any species must not produce too few offspring (for it will become extinct) or too many (for it may also become extinct by overpopulation and disease). The numbers of some organisms fluctuate cyclically but always remain between upper and lower limits. The question of how, through natural selection, numbers of individuals are controlled is a matter of great interest clearly, it involves factors that influence the rate of reproduction.


Animal Behavior - Finding a Mate

Finding a mate is a big deal in the animal world, and it accounts for a lot of animal behavior. Since other animals haven’t discovered the internet yet, they can’t rely on dating sites or Facebook for social interactions so they have to meet in real life (gasp). There are two main ways that animals find a mate:

Both of these are types of sexual selection, where the ability to mate varies based on individuals’ traits. When females choose their male partners, it is called intersexual selection, and when males fight over access to females it is called intrasexual selection.

Intersexual selection is more than just females deciding which guy is the sexiest. Females want their offspring to survive and prosper, so they want to pick a mate with good genes. By selecting a mate, the females are also picking which males get to pass on their genes. The males that get to pass on their genes are "fittest" in the sense of genetic fitness their genes will continue on to the next generation.

So how do females pick a mate? How do they decide what is sexy? Sexy body structures show off the health and good genes of a male, like fish mustaches. Yes, seriously, fish mustaches are hot.

Male fish of the species Mexican molly or short-finned molly (Poecilia sphenops) have mustache-like structures on their upper lip. (Do fish have lips?) The females prefer males with mustaches to males without mustaches. Why the females prefer males with mustaches, we can’t say. They must have a thing for Burt Reynolds.

Understanding what another animal thinks is sexy is sort of like trying to understand fashion. You just can’t. The point is that only males with awesome mustaches get to mate, and assuming the mustache gene is passed on to the offspring, the male offspring of mustachioed fish will also have sexy mustaches that will allow them to mate with whichever female they choose.

Many birds go through sexual selection based on tail length or some other ornamental structure, such as a crest on the head. Peacocks and widowbirds are sexually selected for tail length.


Peacock tails are enormous, and play a role in sexual selection.

If you have ever gone bird watching, or watched the birds in your backyard, you may have noticed that some birds are brightly colored and others are boring shades of brown and gray. Based on what you know about sexual selection, which sex do you think is brightly colored? Did you say males? We hope so, because that’s right.

Being brightly colored, or having extremely long tails (ahem, peacocks) is not a good way to blend in and hide from predators. In fact, it seems like you would be more likely to be eaten if you were sporting flashy feathers because predators would see you more easily. Having brightly colored feathers can make males’ lives more dangerous, but it is a risk they take in hopes of mating successfully. Plus, they don’t really have any choice they are born this way. Ornamentation is common in many animals, and usually it is the males who have it.

Another way intersexual selection works is by females choosing males who have the best stuff. Usually, that means the best territory. Territories are evaluated based on size and proximity to food sources. Red-winged blackbirds are very territorial, and will attack other animals that come into their space, including humans. Don’t get in the way of a red-winged blackbird. They are seriously fierce little birds.

Enough about intersexual selection next up is feats of aggression and strength and fights to the death…it is time for intrasexual selection.

Intrasexual selection is when males compete for access to females. Basically, whoever wins the contest gets to mate with all the females. Elephant seals are a classic example of this. Elephant seals are large and in charge to begin with, but the males are five to six times larger than the females.

At the beginning of the breeding season, males arrive on beaches to establish territories and fight over access to females. The largest male, who dominates all the other males, gains access to a group of females called a harem. The biggest and baddest elephant seals control harems of anywhere from 30 to 100 females, and they mate with all of them. Meanwhile, the smaller male seals that did not get a territory and their own harem wait on the sidelines and try to sneak in and mate when the Big Daddy seal isn’t watching. He has to be occupied some of the time if he has 100 female seals to watch over/mate with.

Brain Snack

The male elephant seal who controls a harem is called the beachmaster.


A harem of female elephant seals on the beach.

Many mammals have similar breeding behavior to this—lions, gorillas, and kangaroos all fight over who gets to mate with nearby females. This fighting is a form of agonistic behavior, which is a behavior associated with conflict over access to a resource (including mates).


Top 10 Uses of Microorganisms | Zoology

The following points highlight the top ten uses of microbes. The uses are: 1. Production of Antibiotics 2. Production of Dairy Products 3. Production of Alcoholic Beverages 4. Production of Bread 5. Production of Food Yeast 6. Production of Organic Acids 7. Production of Vitamins 8. Production of Enzymes 9. Production of Steroids 10. Production of Dextran.

Use # 1. Production of Antibiotics:

Antibiotics are metabolic products of several harmless microorganisms. They are used to kill various pathogenic microorganisms, so helpful in treating many diseases. The important antibiotics currently used in medicines are Penicillin, Streptomycin Bacitracin, Chloromycin, Chlorotetracycline, Tetracycline, Neomycin terramycin, Auromycin, Puromycin, Haymycin and Erythromycin.

Besides their use in the treatment of human diseases, certain antibiotics are used as food preservatives. Some antibiotics are found use in the control of plant pathogens. For example, Griseofulvin, which is not suitable to man is used in the control of bean rust.

Use # 2. Production of Dairy Products:

Microorganisms are useful in the production of cheese, butter milk and other dairy products.

This is produced from milk and is dependent upon the activity of microorganisms like Streptococcus lactis, S. cremoris, Leuconostoc citrivorum etc. The manufacture of cheese consists of curdling the milk by addition of lactic acid bacteria processing of curd to remove moisture, salting and ripening.

During ripening, the microorganism induce proteolytic as well as lipolytic activity. The ripening period of cheese varies from 1 to 16 months. Cheese is a very nutritious food. Its composition is 20 – 35% protein, 20 – 30% fat and a small quantity of minerals.

The microorganisms used to produce buttermilk are streptococcus lactis or S. cremoris and Leuconostoc citrivorum or L. dextranum. The latter produces volatile acids and neutral products which give the buttermilk its typical flavour.

Butter is made by churning the cream which has been soured by lactic acid bacteria.

Use # 3. Production of Alcoholic Beverages:

Alcholic beverages are produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

The yeast used is normally Saccharomyces cerevisae.

Some common alcoholic beverages are:

The manufacture of vinegar involves alcoholic fermentation of substrate by yeast. After the fermentation is complete, yeast pulp and other sediments are removed by settling. The supernant is fermented by acetic bacteria, Acetobacter sp. The optimum alcoholic concentration is 10 – 13%.

It is prepared from barley malt. Barley malt is converted in to sugar by the enzymatic action of Asper gillus oryzae. In next step maltose is converted into alcohol.

It is manufactured by the action of yeast, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus on the grape juice.

It is manufactured by fermentation of molasses with the help of yeast S. cerevisae.

Use # 4. Production of Bread making:

Selected strains of S. cerevisae are mixed in the dough. Fermentation results in the production of carbon dioxide which causes the dough to rise (leavening) and brings about a desired change in the texture and flavour. The quality of the bread depends upon the strain of yeast, selection of raw materials and incubation conditions.

Use # 5. Production of Food Yeast:

Yeast is used as a very nourishing material and is often taken as a food supplement Torulopsis utilis is a food yeast cultured and marketed commercially. Yeast is a good source of Vitamin B complex and also rich in proteins. Yeast is a byproduct of brewing industry, and is also cultured in a medium containing molasses, cane sugar, potatoes of other fermentable carbohydrates.

Use # 6. Production of Organic Acids:

Some of the common organic acids are produced commercially by microorganisms:

It is the vinegar obtained by the fermentation of fruits and sugar containing syrups by Acetobacter sp.

It is an important industrial product obtained through Aspergillus niger. Citric acid is used in medicine flavouring extracts, food and candies, manufacture of ink, dyeing etc.

This is produced through Rhizopus nigricans.

It is obtained by growing Aspergillus niger or Pencillium purpurogenum in a medium containing corn sugar with ammonium phosphate, magnesium sulphate and calcium carbonate. It is used to produce calcium gluconate, a source of calcium in feeding infants and pregnant women.

It is obtained by growing A. terreus in a medium.

It is produced by A. flavus when grown in a medium with sugar plus minerals.

It is produced by Lactobacillus delbruck L. bulgaricus and Streptococcus lactis from corn starch or potatoesLactic acid is used in confectionery extracts, fruit juices, essences pickles, canned vegetables, fish products etc.

Use # 7. Production of Vitamins:

Microorganisms are useful to mankind as they produce many vitamins. Yeasts manufacture vitamin B. complex. For commercial production of B12, Cobalamin, bacteria and actinomycetes like Streptomyces olivaceus and Bacillus megatherium are used. Riboflavin (B2) is produced by a number of microorganisms like Ashbya gossypii Eremothecium ashbyii and Closteridium bytyricum. L-Sorbose, a precursor of vitamin C, ascorbic acid, is produced by different species of Acetobacter from D-Sorbitol by biological dehydrogenation.

Use # 8. Production of Enzymes:

Many enzymes are synthesized by microorganisms. They are commercially not important as their separation and purification involved high cost.

Some of the microbial enzymes useful to man are:

Produced from Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae.

(ii) Dextran sucrase:

Produced from Leuconostoc meseniteroides.

(iii) Lactase:

Produced by Saccharomyces cerevisae.

Obtained from Candida lipolytica.

(v) Pectinase:

Manufactured from Byssochlamys fulvo.

(vi) Proteases and peptidases:

Obtained from Bacillus subtilis and Mortierella renispora.

(vii) Invertase:

Obtained from S. cerevisiae.

(viii) Penicillinase:

Produced from Actinomyces candidus.

Use # 9. Production of Steroids:

Microbes like Actinomycetes, Aspergillus, Streptomyces and Gliocladium are used to produce different steroids from progesterone by microbial transformations. Steroids manufactured by combination of chemical and microbial methods are finding wide use in family planning and in treatment of diseases.

Use # 10. Production of Dextrans:

They are polymers of D-glucose and also are polyglucosans. Fermentation process with the help of Leuconostoc meseniteroides is used in their production. Dextrans with different molecular weights have clinical use.

Microorganisms are beneficial in increasing the fertility of soil. Nitrogen fixing bacterium Rhizobium helps in fixing atmospheric nitrogen in the root nodules of leguminous plants. Different soil bacteria convert organic substances into inorganic compounds, releasing nutrients to growing plants. They also decompose dead plants and animals.

(ii) Coal and Petroleum Microbiology:

Microbes play an important role in the formation of coal and petroleum. Bacteria oxidizes the organic matter to compounds similar to petroleum. Some important bacteria associated with petroleum formation are Clostridium perfringers, Vibrio desulphuricans and Beggiatoa alba.

(iii) Sewage Microbiology:

Many microorganisms are useful to purify domestic wastes. They are responsible for digestion and oxidation of organic materials. They destroy the pathogenic types.

Microorganisms are employed in biological studies. They can be experimented to study the effect of different drugs. In few cases, they are utilized to test organisms to detect the presence of unknown chemical substances. For instance, the presence of traces of copper can be detected by growing Aspergillus niger.

(v) Biological Pest Control:

Bacteria and viruses can cause epidemics among different insect pests without destroying beneficial insects.

(vi) Biological Warfare:

Microbes or their toxic products can be used in biological warfare. Their release through air or water may spread different diseases and cause damage to man, domestic animals and plants.


Mitosis Activity

Mitosis, also called karyokinesis, is division of the nucleus and its chromosomes. It is followed by division of the cytoplasm known as cytokinesis. Both mitosis and cytokinesis are parts of the life of a cell called the Cell Cycle. Most of the life of a cell is spent in a non-dividing phase called Interphase. Interphase includes G1 stage in which the newly divided cells grow in size, S stage in which the number of chromosomes is doubled and appear as chromatin, and G2 stage where the cell makes the enzymes & other cellular materials needed for mitosis.

Mitosis has 4 major stages — Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase. When a living organism needs new cells to repair damage, grow, or just maintain its condition, cells undergo mitosis.

During Prophase, the DNA and proteins start to condense. The two centrioles move toward the opposite end of the cell in animals or microtubules are assembled in plants to form a spindle. The nuclear envelope and nucleolus also start to break up.

During Metaphase, the spindle apparatus attaches to sister chromatids of each chromosome. All the chromosomes are line up at the equator of the spindle. They are now in their most tightly condensed form.

During Anaphase, the spindle fibers attached to the two sister chromatids of each chromosome contract and separate chromosomes which move to opposite poles of the cell.

In Telophase, as the 2 new cells pinch in half (animal cells) or a cell plate forms (plant cells), the chromosomes become less condensed again and reappear as chromatin. New membrane forms nuclear envelopes and the nucleolus is reformed.

In this lab, you will determine the approximate time it takes for a cell to pass through each of the four stages of mitosis. You may use your textbook and class notes to help you identify the stages of mitosis as seen under the microscope.

Microscope, prepared slide onion root tip or whitefish blastula, textbook, lab worksheet, pencil


Watch the video: 5 RARE ANIMALS TO LOOK FOR IN BANGLADESH. After Effect Slideshow (January 2023).