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Fern: most common example of pteridophyte
Pteridophytes are vascular plants that do not have seeds.
- Cormum composed of root, stem and leaves;
- They are tracheophytes, that is, they have a conduction system that transports the sap from the roots to the leaves. In these ducts are also transported food to the rest of the body;
- Have leaves divided into leaflets;
- New leaves appear rolled up;
- Most species have sexual reproduction, but some can reproduce asexually through budding.
- The sap transport system enables the plant to be supported;
- Possess the ability to thrive on tree trunks;
They have a stem, called a rhizome, much like a root.
1 - In sporangia (spore producing organs) of plants, through meiosis, diploid cells are transformed into haploid.
2 - The sporangia breaks and the haploid spores fall to the ground.
3 - The spores germinate giving rise to the protalo (heart-shaped structure).
4 - Protalo has the ability to produce gametes, as it is a sexed plant. This phase lasts a short time.
5 - The protalo has a female and a male reproductive organ.
6 - Anterozoids (male gametes) go to the oosphere (female gamete of plants) fertilizing it.
7 - The born embryo is a diploid. The new adult plant is created because the embryo's cells divide by mitosis.
- Pteridophytes were the first to develop a system for the transport of sap.
- They are widely used as ornamental plants, especially ferns.
- Some species of ferns can grow up to 15 meters.