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Until the late twentieth century, scientists most commonly grouped living things into five kingdoms—animals, plants, fungi, protists, and bacteria—based on several criteria, such as absence or presence of a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles, absence or presence of cell walls, multicellularity, and mode of nutrition. In the late twentieth century, the pioneering work of Carl Woese and others compared nucleotide sequences of small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), which resulted in a dramatically different way to group organisms on Earth. Based on differences in the structure of cell membranes and in rRNA, Woese and his colleagues proposed that all life on Earth evolved along three lineages, called domains. The three domains are called Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.
Two of the three domains—Bacteria and Archaea—are prokaryotic, meaning that they lack both a nucleus and true membrane-bound organelles. However, they are now considered, on the basis of membrane structure and rRNA, to be as different from each other as they are from the third domain, the Eukarya. Prokaryotes were the first inhabitants on Earth, perhaps appearing approximately 3.9 billion years ago. Today they are ubiquitous—inhabiting the harshest environments on the planet, from boiling hot springs to permanently frozen environments in Antarctica, as well as more benign environments such as compost heaps, soils, ocean waters, and the guts of animals (including humans). The Eukarya include the familiar kingdoms of animals, plants, and fungi. They also include a diverse group of kingdoms formerly grouped together as protists.
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Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Current Opinion in Plant Biology builds on Elsevier's reputation for excellence in scientific publishing and long-standing commitment to communicating high quality reproducible research. It is part of the Current Opinion and Research (CO+RE) suite of journals . All CO+RE journals leverage the Current Opinion legacy - of editorial excellence, high-impact, and global reach - to ensure they are a widely read resource that is integral to scientists' workflow.
Expertise: Editors and Editorial Board bring depth and breadth of expertise and experience to the journal.
Discoverability: Articles get high visibility and maximum exposure on an industry-leading platform that reaches a vast global audience.
The Current Opinion journals were developed out of the recognition that it is increasingly difficult for specialists to keep up to date with the expanding volume of information published in their subject. In Current Opinion in Plant Biology, we help the reader by providing in a systematic manner:
1. The views of experts on current advances in plant biology in a clear and readable form.
2. Evaluations of the most interesting papers, annotated by experts, from the great wealth of original publications.
Division of the subject into sections: The subject of plant biology is divided into themed sections which are reviewed regularly to keep them relevant. Presently they are:
Growth and development - Genome studies and molecular genetics (+ Plant biotechnology every other year) - Cell biology and cell signaling - Epigenetics and gene regulation - Physiology and metabolism - Biotic interactions
Selection of topics to be reviewed: Section Editors , who are major authorities in the field, are appointed by the Editors of the journal. They divide their section into a number of topics, ensuring that the field is comprehensively covered and that all issues of current importance are emphasised. Section Editors commission reviews from authorities on each topic that they have selected.
Reviews: Authors write short review articles in which they present recent developments in their subject, emphasising the aspects that, in their opinion, are most important. In addition, they provide short annotations to the papers that they consider to be most interesting from all those published in their topic over the previous year.
Editorial Overview: Section Editors write an Introduction at the beginning of the section to give an overview about the topic and introduce the reviews and to draw the reader's attention to any particularly interesting developments.
Ethics in Publishing - General Statement: The Editor(s) and Publisher of this Journal believe that there are fundamental principles underlying scholarly or professional publishing. While this may not amount to a formal 'code of conduct', these fundamental principles with respect to the authors' paper are that the paper should: i) be the authors' own original work, which has not been previously published elsewhere, ii) reflect the authors' own research and analysis and do so in a truthful and complete manner, iii) properly credit the meaningful contributions of co-authors and co-researchers, iv) not be submitted to more than one journal for consideration, and v) be appropriately placed in the context of prior and existing research. Of equal importance are ethical guidelines dealing with research methods and research funding, including issues dealing with informed consent, research subject privacy rights, conflicts of interest, and sources of funding. While it may not be possible to draft a 'code' that applies adequately to all instances and circumstances, we believe it useful to outline our expectations of authors and procedures that the Journal will employ in the event of questions concerning author conduct. With respect to conflicts of interest, the Publisher now requires authors to declare any conflicts of interest that relate to papers accepted for publication in this Journal. A conflict of interest may exist when an author or the author's institution has a financial or other relationship with other people or organizations that may inappropriately influence the author's work. A conflict can be actual or potential and full disclosure to the Journal is the safest course. All submissions to the Journal must include disclosure of all relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest. The Journal may use such information as a basis for editorial decisions and may publish such disclosures if they are believed to be important to readers in judging the manuscript. A decision may be made by the Journal not to publish on the basis of the declared conflict.
The Function of the Calciferous Glands of Earthworms
1. In the Lumbricidae the secretion of the calciferous glands consists mainly of calcium carbonate, the percentage of carbonate in the calcite concretions being 95-97 per cent.
2. Feeding experiments indicate that the calcium of the secretion can be derived from the common inorganic salts such as the carbonate, sulphate, phosphate, oxalate, chloride, and nitrate, and also from pear leaves.
3. Measurements of the hydrogen-ion concentration of the gut, soil, and castings of specimens of Lumbricus terrestris show that the tendency of the cast to be more neutral than the soil is due to the secretions of the gut as a whole, and not to the secretion of the calciferous glands.
4. The optimum pH's of two of the main intestinal enzymes have been measured. Amylase has an optimum at pH 6·8-7·0, and lipase at pH 6·4-6·6 and 7·3-7·7 depending on the substrate.
5. The amount of carbon dioxide bound as carbonate by the glands was measured in a series of experiments with earthworms kept in different calcium salts. The percentage of carbon dioxide excreted as carbonate never exceeded 10 per cent, of the total metabolic carbon dioxide.
6. Absorption of iron saccharate injected into worms took place occasionally, in groups of adjacent cells in the intestine and in isolated cells in the calciferous glands.
7. The true function of the calciferous glands is excretion, calcium carbonate being passed into the gut as crystals of calcite which are chemically inactive in the gut.
Overview of Exploring Creation with Biology, 3rd Edition, Softcover Textbook
This softcover student textbook, Exploring Creation with Biology, 3rd Edition, is designed to be the student’s first high school science course. It is a college-prep biology course that provides a detailed introduction to the methods and concepts of general biology.
In this course, your student will:
- See the evidence of God’s creation as they learn scientific principles
- Conduct experiments in a methodical way that prepares them not just for future classes, but for life
- Take personal notes, conduct and record experiments, and be able to interpret results
- Develop skills to think through and beyond the textbook materials, and be able to create their own experiments from concept to interpretation of results
- Further develop skills in their own learning style and how they best process, record, study, and retain information learned
- Be able to hold a logical discussion on God and science based on facts and beliefs
- Write the author's last name, first name and middle name or initial. End with a period.
- Write the title of the book in italics followed by a period.
- Write the place where your book was published (city) followed by a comma. The city of publication is only used when the book is published before 1900, if the publisher has offices in multiple countries or is otherwise unknown in North America.
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7. Monograph as part of a journal issue
Ganster, D. C., Schaubroeck, J., Sime, W. E., & Mayes, B. T. (1991). The nomological validity of the Type A personality among employed adults [Monograph]. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(1), 143–168. http://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.1.143
- Parenthetical citation: (Ganster et al., 1991)
- Narrative citation: Ganster et al. (1991)
- For a monograph with an issue (or whole) number, include the issue number in parentheses followed by the serial number, for example, 58(1, Serial No. 231).
- For a monograph bound separately as a supplement to a journal, give the issue number and supplement or part number in parentheses after the volume number, for example, 80(3, Pt. 2).
Clearly, the use and design of Open Labware designs can be a powerful ingredient to foster scientific research, education, and public science engagement. Their evolution spans several disciplines, from computer sciences and mechanical engineering to electronics and biology—thus connecting experts and the wider public across fields and sparking creativity in people of all ages. Their low cost, adaptability and robustness renders designs suitable for a broad range of applications in both teaching and research. Below we present some suggestions for policy implementations to optimize available possibilities.
Watch the video: Biology in a Box (January 2023).