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15: Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity - Biology

15: Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity - Biology


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  • 15.1: Characteristics of Infectious Diseases
    In an infection, a microorganism enters a host and begins to multiply. Some infections cause disease, which is any deviation from the normal function or structure of the host. Signs of a disease are objective and are measured. Symptoms of a disease are subjective and are reported by the patient. Diseases can either be noninfectious (due to genetics and environment) or infectious (due to pathogens).
  • 15.2: How Pathogens Cause Disease
    Koch’s postulates are used to determine whether a particular microorganism is a pathogen. Molecular Koch’s postulates are used to determine what genes contribute to a pathogen’s ability to cause disease. Virulence, the degree to which a pathogen can cause disease, can be quantified by calculating either the ID50 or LD50 of a pathogen on a given population. Primary pathogens are capable of causing pathological changes associated with disease in a healthy individual.
  • 15.3: Virulence Factors
    Virulence factors contribute to a pathogen’s ability to cause disease. Exoenzymes and toxins allow pathogens to invade host tissue and cause tissue damage. Exoenzymes are classified according to the macromolecule they target and exotoxins are classified based on their mechanism of action. Bacterial toxins include endotoxin and exotoxins. Endotoxin is the lipid A component of the LPS of the gram-negative cell envelope. Exotoxins are proteins secreted mainly by gram-positive bacteria.
  • 15.4: Aseptic Techniques
    Fungal and parasitic pathogens use pathogenic mechanisms and virulence factors that are similar to those of bacterial pathogens Fungi initiate infections through the interaction of adhesins with receptors on host cells. Some fungi produce toxins and exoenzymes involved in disease production and capsules that provide protection of phagocytosis. Protozoa adhere to target cells through complex mechanisms and can cause cellular damage through release of cytopathic substances.
  • 15.E: Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity (Exercises)
    These are exercises for Chapter 15 "Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity" in OpenStax's Microbiology Textmap.

15: Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity - Biology

20 notecards = 5 pages ( 4 cards per page)

Chapter 15 Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity

All of the following are examples of entry via the parental route EXCEPT?

A) injection.
B) bite.
C) surgery.
D) hair follicle.
E) skin cut.

All of the following bacteria release endotoxin EXCEPT

A) Clostridium botulinum.
B) Salmonella typhi.
C) Neisseria meningitidis.
D) Proteus vulgaris.
E) Haemophilus influenzae.

All of the following contribute to a pathogen's invasiveness EXCEPT

A) toxins.
B) capsules.
C) cell wall components.
D) hyaluronidase.
E) coagulases.

Antibiotics can lead to septic shock if used to treat

A) viral infections.
B) gram-negative bacterial infections.
C) gram-positive bacterial infections.
D) protozoan infections.
E) helminth infestations.

Gram-negative bacterial infections

Cholera toxin polypetide A binds to surface gangliosides on target cells. It the gangliosides were removed

A) polypeptide A would bind to target cells.
B) polypeptide A would enter the cells.
C) polypeptide B would not be able to enter the cells.
D) Vibrio would not produce cholera toxin.
E) Vibrio would bind to target cells.

Polypetide B would not be able to enter the cells

Cytopathic effects are changes in the host cells due to

A) viral infections.
B) protozoan infections.
C) fungal infections.
D) bacterial infections.
E) helminthic infections.

A) associated with gram-positive bacteria.
B) molecules that bind nerve cells.
C) part of the gram-negative cell wall.
D) excreted from the cell.
E) A-B toxins.

Part of the gram-negative cell wall

Injectable drugs are tested for endotoxins by

A) the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test.
B) counting the viable bacteria.
C) filtering out the cells.
D) looking for turbidity.
E) culturing bacteria.

the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test

Lysogenic bacteriophages contribute to bacterial virulence because bacteriophages

A) give new gene sequences to the host bacteria.
B) produce toxins.
C) carry plasmids.
D) kill the bacteria, causing release of endotoxins.
E) kill human cells.

Give new gene sequences to the host bacteria

Nonpathogenic Vibrio cholerae can acquire the cholera toxin gene by

A) phagocytosis.
B) transduction.
C) conjugation.
D) transformation.
E) infecting a pathogenic Vibrio cholerae.

Patients developed inflammation a few hours following eye surgery. Instruments and solutions were sterile, and the Limulus assay was positive. The patient's inflammation was due to

A) bacterial infection.
B) viral infection.
C) endotoxin.
D) exotoxin.
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with the host's

A) antibodies.
B) red blood cells.
C) iron-transport proteins.
D) white blood cells.
E) receptors.

Superantigens produce intense immune responses by stimulating lymphocytes to produce

A) endotoxins.
B) exotoxins.
C) cytokines.
D) leukocidins.
E) interferons.

A) the dose that will cause an infection in 50 percent of the test population.
B) the dose that will kill some of the test population.
C) the dose that will kill 50 percent of the test population.
D) the dose that will cause an infection in some of the test population.
E) a measure of pathogenicity.

The dose that will cause an infection in 50 percent of the test population

The ability of some microbes, such as Trypanosoma or Giardia to alter their surface molecules and evade destruction by the host's antibodies is called

A) cytocidal effect.
B) antigenic variation.
C) lysogenic conversion.
D) cytopathic effect.
E) virulence.

Which of the following contributes to the virulence of a pathogen?

microorganisms that gain access to a host
B) evasion of host defenses
C) toxin production
D) numbers of microorganisms that gain access to a host and evasion of host defenses
E) numbers of microorganisms that gain access to a host, evasion of host defenses, and toxin production

Numbers of microorganisms that gain access to a host, evasion of host defenses, and toxin production

Which of the following is NOT a membrane-disrupting toxin?

A) A-B toxin
B) Hemolysin
C) Leukocidin
D) Streptolysin O
E) Streptolysin S


BIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity

BIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of PathogenicityBIOLOGY 206 OpenStax Microbiology Test Bank-Chapter 15&colon Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity


Dendritic cells contain pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize microbial associated molecular patterns (MAMPs.

Another mechanism used by the microbe involves binding of immune regulators produced by the host through the production of surface-bound molecules [5, 6]. Ho.

Moreover, there is evidence indicating that the bacterial culture in the intestine may be affected by the host major histocompatibility complex genes (they a.

The first step in phage infection is the attachment of the phage to the host cell surface. This is typically accomplished by the recognition of a receptor on.

It includes Mucus membrane, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), macrophages and antigen presenting cells (APCs). A good example of primary innate immune defen.

The bacteria secrete an extracellular slimy substance comprised of proteins, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids to build the protective matrix biofilm struct.

Francisella tularensis is an important microbial agent which causes the severe infection of tularemia. The intracellular life cycle of this bacterium is supp.

Transformation allows the bacteria to be introduced to a foreign plasmid. The bacteria is then amplified by the plasmid, allowing for larger quantities of it.

Meanwhile, neomycin acts on both gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens including staphylococci, Proteus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, S.

1. Describe what occurs when a macrophage binds to a microorganism via phagocytic receptors on the surface of the macrophage and ligands on the surface of th.


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Introduction

Jane woke up one spring morning feeling not quite herself. Her throat felt a bit dry and she was sniffling. She wondered why she felt so lousy. Was it because of a change in the weather? The pollen count? Was she coming down with something? Did she catch a bug from her coworker who sneezed on her in the elevator yesterday?

The signs and symptoms we associate with illness can have many different causes. Sometimes they are the direct result of a pathogenic infection, but in other cases they result from a response by our immune system to a pathogen or another perceived threat. For example, in response to certain pathogens, the immune system may release pyrogens, chemicals that cause the body temperature to rise, resulting in a fever. This response creates a less-than-favorable environment for the pathogen, but it also makes us feel sick.

Medical professionals rely heavily on analysis of signs and symptoms to determine the cause of an ailment and prescribe treatment. In some cases, signs and symptoms alone are enough to correctly identify the causative agent of a disease, but since few diseases produce truly unique symptoms, it is often necessary to confirm the identity of the infectious agent by other direct and indirect diagnostic methods.

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    • Authors: Nina Parker, Mark Schneegurt, Anh-Hue Thi Tu, Philip Lister, Brian M. Forster
    • Publisher/website: OpenStax
    • Book title: Microbiology
    • Publication date: Nov 1, 2016
    • Location: Houston, Texas
    • Book URL: https://openstax.org/books/microbiology/pages/1-introduction
    • Section URL: https://openstax.org/books/microbiology/pages/15-introduction

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    Watch the video: BIOL31: Mechanisms of Pathogenicity (December 2022).