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What is the maximum height of a tree?

What is the maximum height of a tree?


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I know there exists a huge variation in the height of trees. But what is the maximum height a tree can reach?

It must have something to do with the ability of the capillaries to transport life fluids all the way to the top. What is (are) the theor(y)(ies) about the maximum height, if there are any, and what do(es) it (they) predict?

Does it match reality?


The transport of water, and dissolved minerals, from the soil to the tops of trees is a combination of three factors. Root pressure pulls the water in due to factors related to osmosis. Capillary action helps draw it up the hydrophyllic vascular tissue. But the most important factor is due to evaporation in the leaves. This has some rather detailed aspects, search "transpiration" for details.

Although Coastal Redwoods are typically cited as being the tallest, some Douglass Firs are also in the competition. If you re seriously interested, here's a link to a Humbolt State University professor, Steve Sillett, who both studies and climbs these trees in search of the record. His book is a great read, also introducing you to the remarkable ecology near the tops of these trees. http://magazine.humboldt.edu/fall09/tallest-trees-unveiled/


3 Tree Structures Where Growth Occurs

Little of a tree's volume is actually "living" tissue. Just 1% of a tree is actually alive and composed of living cells. The major living portion of a growing tree is a thin film of cells just under the bark (called the cambium) and can be only one to several cells thick. Other living cells are in root tips, the apical meristem, leaves, and buds.

The overwhelming portion of all trees is made up of non-living tissue created by a cambial hardening into non-living wood cells on the inner cambial layer. Sandwiched between the outer cambial layer and the bark is an ongoing process of creating sieve tubes which transport food from leaves to roots.

So, all wood is formed by the inner cambium and all food-conveying cells are formed by the outer cambium.


What is the maximum height of a tree? - Biology

To a plant, leaves are food producing organs. Leaves "absorb" some of the energy in the sunlight that strikes their surfaces and also take in carbon dioxide from the surrounding air in order to run the metabolic process of photosynthesis. The green color of leaves, in fact, is caused by an abundance of the pigment "chlorophyl" which is the specific chemical agent that acts to capture the sunlight energy needed for photosynthesis. The products of photosynthesis are sugars and polysaccharides. An important "waste product" of photosynthesis is oxygen. To an animal, a leaf may be a food source or a place to live on or under (i.e. a "habitat").

What kinds of leaves do we see on the trees found on the Nature Trail?

The leaves found on the trees of the Nature Trail are either broad and flat (like oak leaves) or needle-shaped (like red pine needles). Both kinds of leaves are photosynthetic organs and both kinds of leaves can serve as food or as habitat for a great variety of other organisms.

Why do tree leaves have different shapes?

The shape of a tree's leaves are a response to the tree species' long term ecological and evolutionary histories. An ecosystem's limiting factors may also modify the finished form and shape of a tree's leaves. Understanding of the "logic" behind the varied forms of leaves is facilitated by a firm grasp of the precise functions a leaf must accomplish.
1. A leaf must "capture" sunlight for photosynthesis (and as it does this it may also absorb a great deal of heat!)
2. A leaf must take in carbon dioxide from the surrounding air via pores (called "stomatae"). This carbon dioxide is also needed for photosynthesis. When these leaf stomatae are open to allow the uptake of carbon dioxide, water from inside the leaf is lost to the atmosphere.
The leaf, then, is affected by these balancing acts: enough sunlight and carbon dioxide to run photosynthesis, but not too much associated heat absorption or water loss.

How does this "balancing act" influence the ultimate expression of a leaf's shape?

Leaves high in the tree canopy receive a great deal of sunlight. These leaves tend to be smaller in size (and, therefore, have reduced light absorptive surface area) and tend also to have complex edges and lobes (which enables them to disperse absorbed heat very rapidly). Leaves in the lower tree canopy are more shaded. These lower canopy leaves tend to be larger (more light absorptive surface area) and tend to have reduced expressions of lobes and edges. These trends may be observed in comparing the leaves of high canopy trees (like oaks) to the leaves of low canopy trees (like dogwoods), or they can also be observed in an individual tree that has leaves in both the upper and lower canopies (the white oak, for example). In the white oak the smaller upper canopy leaves are also noted to allow significant amounts of light to pass through the upper canopy in order to keep the lower leaves supplied with sufficient light to allow their continued photosynthesis.

Needle-shaped leaves have a very low light absorptive surface area. Each needle, then, is not able to capture very much sunlight energy for photosynthesis. Needles also have a very thick, outer cuticle coating and special "pit-like" stomatae designed to prevent excessive water loss. Trees with needle-shaped leaves are especially well suited to site's that have drier soils and to climates in which the careful conservation of water is an important survival strategy. Needle-shaped leaves also differ from broad leaves (in our climate zone anyway) in that needles last for three or four years while broad leaves only "live" for a single growing season. These 'evergreen" needled trees, then, have a great advantage over the "deciduous" broad leafed trees in that the metabolic cost of the leaf's synthesis can be recovered via photosynthesis over several growing seasons. Also, the continuous presence of the needles means that whenever environmental conditions are sufficiently moderate (even in the middle of winter!) the needles can photosynthesize and thus gather energy for the tree! A study in Germany compared energy production in beech trees (which have broad, flat leaves) and Norway spruce trees (which have needles). It was found that the beech trees photosynthesize for 176 days in a year while the Norway spruce photosynthesize 260 days in a year! The bottom energy line was that with this increased time base for photosynthesis, the smaller leafed surface area of the Norway spruce was actually 58% more productive than the beech!

Are the arrangements of leaves on a tree always the same?

There are two basic arrangement patterns of leaves on a tree: "mono-layer" and "multi-layer". In a mono-layer arrangement the leaves are arrayed so that no leaf is above and, therefore, shading any other leaves of the tree. This is the leaf pattern seen in the shade dwelling under story trees like the dogwood. In a multi-layer arrangement there are leaves above and below other leaves on the tree. This is the pattern seen in trees which extend u into the upper stories of a forest canopy. The light-rich upper leaves (as previously mentioned) tend to be smaller and more lobed than the lower. This leaf shape facilitates heat loss and prevents extreme self-shading.

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The secret behind maximum plant height—water

Trees grow in Dinghushan National Nature Reserve (SCBG), Guangdong, China Credit: YE Qing

Physiological coordination between plant height and xylem hydraulic traits is aligned with habitat water availability across Earth's terrestrial biomes, according to a new study. Ecologists from the South China Botanical Garden (SCBG), Chinese Academy of Sciences, conclude that such coordination plays an important role in determining global sorting of plant species, and can be useful in predicting future species distribution under climate change scenarios.

Plants grow taller in wetter places, but what factors set their maximum height? Through previous experiments on tall trees, scientists have revealed that increasing hydraulic resistance associated with increasing plant height limits the distance water can be transported through xylem to the top leaves. This hydraulic resistance thus sets the maximum height of a species in a given habitat.

However, scientists didn't understand how this physiological coordination varied across a broad range of species and environments. Based on a huge dataset of 1,281 species from 369 sites worldwide, the researchers built multiple models linking height, hydraulic traits and water to find general rules. They found that taller species from wet habitats exhibited greater xylem efficiency and lower hydraulic safety, wider conduits, lower conduit density, and lower sapwood density, all of which were associated with habitat water availability.

"People used to think that taller plants might transport water less efficiently because of the longer distances," said Dr. Liu Hui, the first author of this study. "Instead, we found that taller plants had higher hydraulic conductivity across species, which was a main strategy they employ to compensate for the high evaporative demand by leaves and the increased height. It is called Darcy's Law."

Until now, most of the hydraulic theories such as Darcy's Law were based on data within species, Dr. Liu said. In contrast, this study distinguished and explained different hydraulic patterns between within and across species.

"Simply put, patterns found within species are based on short-term adaptive responses and are largely shaped by physiological trade-offs or constraints, while patterns across species reflect intrinsic evolutionary differences, which may be formed over millions of years, and are mainly constrained by their environmental niches," Dr. Liu said.

"Our findings greatly extend human knowledge about the relationship between xylem hydraulic traits and plant height from local studies to biomes across the globe," said the corresponding author Prof. Ye Qing, director of the Ecology and Environmental Sciences Center of SCBG. "We highlighted that hydraulic traits can serve as important predictors of global maximum plant height and species distribution patterns."


WINDBREAKS AND SHELTERBELTS

Use of Windbreaks and Shelterbelts in Soil Management

The diversity of vegetation offered by shelterbelts in regions of monoculture-managed landscapes promotes biological diversity both above and below the surface. By providing shade, detritus layers, wind speed reduction, soil ventilation, and changes in temperature, humidity, and soil moisture, perennial living barriers offer richer spatial variation in microclimates for plants and belowground ecosystems. In intensively managed agricultural environments, tree shelterbelts provide islands having reduced concentrations of agricultural chemicals and increased biodiversity, with soil and aboveground ecosystems that include earthworms, small mammals, birds, perennial grasses, and woody plants and that deliver a range of beneficial ecosystem services.

Shelterbelts will become increasingly important as the regional impacts of global warming become more clearly identified, both for sequestering carbon and to suppress the negative agricultural impacts relating to reduced soil moisture and increased likelihood of erosion. Simulations of future-scenario climates show higher likelihood of more extreme events (both droughts and floods), and shelterbelts offer protection of crops under such impending changes. Prevention of soil loss due to high wind is a historic benefit of shelters, but they also suppress soil loss due to floods or intense rains on sloped surfaces. Soil erosion decreases soil productivity locally owing to loss of fine soil particles containing organic matter and nutrients and causes off-site damage to structures and unwanted deposition of soil particles. Irreversible damage to soil ecosystems due to extended drought is suppressed by shelters. Perennial living barriers in agricultural fields sequester carbon aboveground by creating biomass and belowground by deep roots, litter production, and providing regions of undisturbed soils that reduce microbial decomposition rates. Shelterbelts restore soil organic matter lost through agricultural practices.


Resistance makes growth futile

Now a pair of scientists have applied a scaling law arguments to the leaves of trees. The heart of the argument is about how fast sugar flows down the trunk of the tree. A tree has to be able to distribute energy from the leaves to the roots, and this is all governed by flow through a network of tubes, called phloem.

The speed of the flow is in turn governed by just a few factors: two different flow resistances, and the pressure difference between the top and the bottom of the tree. It turns out that the pressure difference is independent of height, but the flow resistances are a different matter.

Flow resistance in the trunk depends on the length and radius of the phloem tube. As the length increases, the flow resistance increases. But, as the radius increases, the resistance drops. For small trees, both the radius and the length increase with height, so the flow resistance may drop as the tree grows. Unfortunately, for taller trees, the radius tops out at 20 micrometers, leaving the flow resistance to continue increasing as the tree grows.

For leaves, the story is a little more complicated. The phloem has permeable membranes that are designed to accept increasing amounts of sugar from the leaf. The argument is that the increased permeability and phloem surface area result in greater concentration differences that drive a higher pressure differential within the leaf. Looking at the leaf as a black box, it simply appears that the internal resistance has dropped. The upshot is that the flow resistance of the leaf decreases as the leaf size increases.

Why does this matter? Both resistances contribute to slowing the flow but, if one is much larger than the other, then changing the smaller resistance has no impact. So, for a tall tree, increasing the leaf size doesn't result in faster flow, since the phloem's resistance dominates. For smaller trees, a larger leaf size does result in faster flow. And this changes the energy balance for the tree.


Resource availability and disturbance shape maximum tree height across the Amazon

Eric Bastos Gorgens, Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Campus JK, Rodovia MGT 367 - Km 583, nº 5.000, Alto da Jacuba, Diamantina, MG CEP 39100-000, Brazil.

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

United States Forest Service, Washington, DC, USA

Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

Bangor University, Bangor, UK

Swansea Univesity, Swansea, UK

Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, Panama

Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, Brazil

Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Diamantina, MG, Brazil

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil

Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Diamantina, MG, Brazil

Eric Bastos Gorgens, Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Campus JK, Rodovia MGT 367 - Km 583, nº 5.000, Alto da Jacuba, Diamantina, MG CEP 39100-000, Brazil.

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

United States Forest Service, Washington, DC, USA

Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

Bangor University, Bangor, UK

Swansea Univesity, Swansea, UK

Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, Panama

Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, Brazil

Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Diamantina, MG, Brazil

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil

Abstract

Tall trees are key drivers of ecosystem processes in tropical forest, but the controls on the distribution of the very tallest trees remain poorly understood. The recent discovery of grove of giant trees over 80 meters tall in the Amazon forest requires a reevaluation of current thinking. We used high-resolution airborne laser surveys to measure canopy height across 282,750 ha of old-growth and second-growth forests randomly sampling the entire Brazilian Amazon. We investigated how resources and disturbances shape the maximum height distribution across the Brazilian Amazon through the relations between the occurrence of giant trees and environmental factors. Common drivers of height development are fundamentally different from those influencing the occurrence of giant trees. We found that changes in wind and light availability drive giant tree distribution as much as precipitation and temperature, together shaping the forest structure of the Brazilian Amazon. The location of giant trees should be carefully considered by policymakers when identifying important hot spots for the conservation of biodiversity in the Amazon.


What is the maximum height of a tree? - Biology

Scientific Name: Sassafras albium
Common Name: Sassafras

(Information for this species page was gathered by Mr. Christopher Hone as part of an assignment in Biology 220M, Spring 2007)

Sassafras (Sassafras albium) is a tree in the extensive tree/shrub botanical family Lauraceae. Like many of the other species in Lauraceae (including the camphor tree, mountain laurel, and spicebush), sassafrass is notable for the abundance and diversity of chemicals that it synthesizes in its leaves, twigs, and roots.

Medicinal Uses
Sassafras was used extensively by Native Americans as a cure-all for a broad range of ailments. Oil from the root bark of the tree was used to treat everything from diarrhea, to nosebleeds, to heart troubles. European settlers and their colonial sponsors were so impressed by the healing powers of sassafras oils that sassafras roots were exported back to Europe in great quantities. In 1602, one ton of these roots sold for 336 pounds Sterling (about $25,000 in modern currency). Leaves were brewed into a medicinal tea and extracted oils were used the make perfume, candy, soap, and root beer.

Range
Sassafras trees are found throughout the Eastern United States and even into eastern Texas and Oklahoma. Cold, prolonged winters seem to be the factor limiting the northward distribution of the tree. In the northernmost sections of its range, sassafras exists as a low, understory shrub with trunk diameters of only 6 to 8 inches. In the southernmost sections of its range, however, it can attain heights of 100 feet and circumferences that exceed 20 feet! On average, though, heights of 30 to 60 feet and diameters of 18 inches are much more common across its natural range.

Habitat
Sassafras grows well in moist, but well drained soils. It thrives in full sun but can grow in a patchy sunlit understory. Deep shade is very stressful to the tree and can contribute to its failure on a site. Trees in full sun develop a broad, leafy canopy, while those growing in the understory tend to form an umbrella-shaped, single layer, branch distribution. Upper branches tend to be bright green in color, while lower branches and the trunk tend to be a dull, orange-brown. The trunk bark is deeply furrowed with uniform joining ridges. Dense thickets of sassafras trees/shrubs can form from extensive sucker growth from its spreading, root laterals.

Leaf Shapes

Sassafras leaves have three common shapes: a three lobed &ldquoghost,&rdquo a two lobed &ldquomitten&rdquo (both right and left handed), and an un-lobed elliptical &ldquofootball.&rdquo The distribution of these various leaves is not random on a given tree. Two and three lobed leaves are more abundant than un-lobed leaves on the lower portions of the crowns of small trees and on the lower sides of the primary branches. Vertical branches tend to have all three leaf shapes equally present. It has been hypothesized that the leaves in the lower branches accumulate starches to a greater degree than upper leaves. These starches are known to inhibit cell division in leaves which can then cause a lobe to form.

Genders, Fruits and Seeds
Sassafras trees tend to be either &ldquomale&rdquo or &ldquofemale.&rdquo Both genders set their small, greenish-yellow flowers in March or April. Pollinated female flowers set round, blue fruit (3/4 inch long) around a single, hard seed. The fruit ripens in September or October. These fruits are eaten by a wide array or animals (including black bears, whitetail deer, wild turkeys, raccoons, foxes, and many species of birds). Bird dispersal of the seeds is an extremely important factor in sassafras ecology. Seeds most often germinate in the following spring especially in sites with moist, litter-covered topsoil.

Impact on Succession
Sassafras is a very significant tree in the early stages of a secondary succession sequence. After a forested area is disturbed (as by a forest fire, wind storm, timber harvest, etc), birds rapidly disperse sassafras seeds throughout the site. The rapid germination and growth of the sassafras tree over a wide range of soil conditions, accompanied by the influence of its many leaf and root chemicals on potential competitors (sassafras extracts have been shown to powerfully inhibit the seed germination and growth of both box elders and American elms) allow the sassafras, if parental trees are in the area, to reach substantial densities on almost any disturbed site.

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What is the maximum height of a tree? - Biology

THE GIANT SEQUOIA stands supreme in size among the members of the plant world. No other species even closely competes with the vast volume of wood in the trunks of some of the larger Sequoias which rise as immense cylinders with very gradual taper for almost 300 feet into the sky.

This species, however, is exceeded in height by at least three others. The redwood, which is the tallest tree in the world, reaches a height of 364 feet. The Douglas-fir of the Pacific Northwest and the mountain gum of Australia reach maximum heights of 324 and 326 feet, respectively. The giant sequoia is probably fourth in height at about 300 feet, but has close competition from two other American species—the Sitka spruce and western hemlock—which also approach the same height. None of these other tall trees, however, exceeds 20 feet in diameter 4-1/2 feet above the ground.

FIGURE 8.—General Grant Tree, General Grant Grove, Kings Canyon National Park.

In diameter and circumference the giant sequoia is probably exceeded by only a single tree. A tule cypress, far exceeding in size any other of that species, near Santa Maria del Tule, Oaxaca, Mexico, has a diameter of 36.1 feet and a circumference of 113 feet. This tree, however, is only 130 feet tall.

The vast size of the sequoias is difficult to comprehend fully. It is so out of proportion to commonly recognized measurements of trees or other familiar objects that figures regarding size do not register a clear picture of its vastness. One of the best illustrations known to the writer is that furnished by a single branch on the General Sherman Tree in Sequoia National Park. This branch is 6.8 feet in diameter as it turns upward from the trunk 130 feet from the ground and is 150 feet in length. Thus, it is larger than the largest specimens of many more familiar tree species, yet, in itself, is an inconspicuous part of the tree.

TABLE 1 — Size of the largest giant sequoias 1

Name of treeLocation Height
to top
of
trunk
Perimeter at
base on
slope
Mean diameter— Height
of first
large
limb
Diameter of
first
large
limb
Volume,
exclusive
of limbs
and loss
by burns
Restored
base
At 60
feet
At 120
feet


Feet Feet Feet Feet Feet Feet Feet Cu. Ft.
General Sherman.Giant Forest, Sequoia National Park. 272.4101.630.7 17.517.0129.9 6.849,600
General GrantGrant Grove, Kings Canyon National Park. 267.4107.633.3 16.315.0129.8 3.243,038
BooleConverse Forest, Sequoia National Forest. 268.8112.033.2 15.313.9126.0 --39,974
HartRedwood Canyon, Kings Canyon National Park. 277.973.826.5 14.512.9---- --32,607
Grizzly GiantMariposa Grove, Yosemite National Park. 209.096.527.6 15.813.195.4 6.030,300

1 Figures were obtained by a group of well-qualified engineers and involved several hundred individual measurements and computations on each tree. Surveyors' transits were used and all measurements checked.


Scientific journal articles for further reading

Lango Allen H, Estrada K, Lettre G, et al. Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height. Nature. 2010 Oct 14467(7317):832-8. doi: 10.1038/nature09410. Epub 2010 Sep 29. PubMed: 20881960. Free full-text available from PubMed Central: PMC2955183.

Marouli E, Graff M, Medina-Gomez C, Lo KS, et al. Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height. Nature. 2017 Feb 9542(7640):186-190. doi: 10.1038/nature21039. Epub 2017 Feb 1. PubMed: 28146470. Free full-text available from PubMed Central: PMC5302847.

McEvoy BP, Visscher PM. Genetics of human height. Econ Hum Biol. 2009 Dec7(3):294-306. doi: 10.1016/j.ehb.2009.09.005. Epub 2009 Sep 17. PubMed: 19818695.

Perola M. Genome-wide association approaches for identifying loci for human height genes. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Feb25(1):19-23. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2010.10.013. PubMed: 21396572.


American Sweetgum

The name Liquidambar styraciflua means “liquid amber” and styraciflua is in reference to styrax balsam, which is a kind of resin produced by the sweetgum that can be chewed for medicinal and recreational purposes. The American sweetgum is native to North America, and its genus has only 5 other species included. According to the Arbor Day Foundation, the first mention of the sweetgum in history came from the diary of a Spanish conquistadore in 1519, who watched a ceremony between Cortez and Montezuma, in which the “liquid amber” resin from a sweetgum tree was used. Indeed, in North American Indian medicine, the resin from sweetgum trees were used to treat several ailments, as well as for dental hygiene.

The other uses of the American sweetgum include lumber, veneer, and plywood, as well as fuel and pulpwood. The sweetgum, which also provides the material for hardwood, is one of the most important trees for timber in the country. The reason for the sweetgum’s name is that early American pioneers used to peel the bark off of the tree and scrape the gum off of the bark, which was used as chewing gum and also another resin derivative from the tree is used in fragrances, pharmeceuticals, soaps and natural medicines.

The American sweetgum is often planted as a street tree in surburban areas, but it also can tend to form thickets within forests. The tree grows best in deep, moist soil (it can only tolerate very moderate drought), with a pH no higher than 7. There are several different popular cultivars of the sweeetgum, including “Burgundy” which is better adapted to the American South, “festival” with peach-colored foliage, “Moraine” which is best adapted to cold, and Rotundiloba, which has no fruit production.

Arbor Day Foundation, “American Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua,” Tree Guide, Accessed April 19, 2016.

B.W. Wells Association, “News from Rockcliff Farm: Spring Flowers of the Sweet Gum Tree – Liquidambar styraciflua,” April 7, 2016, https://bwwellsassociation.wordpress.com/2016/04/07/spring-flowers-of-th….

Cathy Heidenreich, “Sweetgum, Confederate Native Becoming Yankee Favorite,” Geneva Arboretum Association, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Accessed April 22, 2016 http://www.hort.cornell.edu/bjorkman/lab/arboretum/trees/sweetgum.html

E. Richard Toole, “Sweetgum Blight,” U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Pest Leaflet 37, April 1959, Accessed April 21, 2016, http://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/fsbdev2_043681.pdf

Edward F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson, “Liquidambar styraciflua: Sweetgum,” University of Florida IFAS Extension, Accessed April 27, 2016 https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/st358.

Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, “Liquidambar styraciflua,” Native Plant Database, The University of Texas at Austin, Accessed at April 19, 2016 http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=LIST2.

Natasha Gilani, “Uses for a Sweet Gum Tree,” SF Gates, Accessed at http://homeguides.sfgate.com/uses-sweet-gum-tree-44350.html.

Paul P. Kormanik, “Sweetgum,” USDA Forest Services, Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, Accessed April 27, 2016 http://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/silvics_manual/volume_2/liquidambar/styraci…

Ray R. Hicks, Jr. and M. Reines, “The Phenology of Sweetgum Liquidambar Styraciflua,” Journal Series Paper No. 102 of University of Georgia College of Agriculture Experiment Stations.


Watch the video: Minimum Height of Binary Tree (January 2023).