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Where can I find a list of trees in the world?

Where can I find a list of trees in the world?


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I want to make an app for smartphones that list most common trees in the world.

Where can I find a list?

I would like to include if the tree is deciduous or perennial and geography/climatic location.

I can buy a book if it is complete, preferably with photos of tree leaves. If I had only the list I may find the rest of information on wikipedia or other sites.


6 Major Biomes of the World &ndash Discussed!

Some of the major biomes of the world are as follows:

1. Desert Biome 2. Grassland Biome 3. Rain Forest Biome 4. Deciduous Forest Biome 5. Taiga Biome 6. Tundra Biome.

1. Desert Biome:

A desert usually has less than 25 cm of rain per year. Deserts are also characterized by intense sunshine and very hot days (40°C and upward) at least during summer and the evaporation rate is very high. Nights are generally cold, even in summers, and daily variations in temperature reach extremes found in no other environment. Desert life is usually well adapted to the dry weather.

Most annual plants in the desert are small. They grow rapidly, bloom and produce seeds all within a few days after a rain. Since the growing season is greatly restricted, such plants live relatively small. Many perennial desert plants have small leaves, or none at all, or their leaf surfaces are often reduced to spines and thorns, minimizing water loss by evaporation. Some have very long roots, reaching deeply buried water. Others, like the cacti, absorb water rapidly after a rain and store the same in spongy internal tissues.

Desert animals are also adapted to scarcity of water and extremes of temperature. In most deserts, the large homoeothermic mammals and birds are comparatively rare or are absent altogether because the maintenance of a constant body temperature is difficult or rather impossible under conditions of extreme heat and practically no water.

However, some animals like the camel are adapted to extreme desert conditions. Animals, which match their internal temperature to that of their environment, the so-called cold-blooded animals, live more easily in the desert. Desert animals are generally small, and they include many burrowing forms, which may avoid the direct heat of the Sun. In all deserts small rodents are numerous and almost all are burrowers. The kangaroo rat (Dipodomys) is a desert animal depending on bipedal, leaping locomotion. Snakes and lizards are common in all deserts.

2. Grassland Biome:

In a grassland biome, the vegetation is dominated by grasses, which may grow to about 2 m in the moist areas and 0.2 m in arid regions of the grassland biome. It is not an exclusively tropical biome but extends into much of the temperate zone as well. The more or less synonymous terms “prairie” (in North America), “pampas” (South America), “steppes” (in Central Asia) “puszta” (Hungary) and many other regional terms underscore the wide distribution of this biome.

The common feature of all grasslands is intermittent, erratic rainfall, amounting to about 4 to 16 cm annually. The irregularly of rain, porosity and drainage of the soil, or both factors together prevent a continuous or ample supply of water to plant roots. Grasses of various kinds are particularly adapted to irregularly alternating periods of precipitation and dryness. The environmental conditions vary greatly in different grasslands. There are also non-grass herbaceous species, which are called forbs.

Grassland biome probably supports more species of animals than any other terrestrial habitat. In all grasslands, the primary consumers are the large grazing mammals like the bisons, pronghoms (Antilocapra Americana ) and zebra (Equus zebra). African glass-lands support large herds of zebras and several species of grazing antelopes.

The grassland ungulates are cursorial. Hares and rodent are also common primary consumers in the grasslands. Many rodents, like the prairie dogs and other ground squirrels or the pocket gophers, are burrowing or fossorial animals. Australian grasslands have herbivores very different in appearance and relationships but ecologically similar.

These are large grazing cursorial kangaroos and small, burrowing, rodent-like pouched “mice”. Predators are adapted to the herbivore prey: wild dogs, lions, and the like preying on the ungulates weasels, snakes, and others on the smaller herbivores. Herbivorous insects such as locusts and grasshoppers are also numerous. Grasslands also support some herbivorous predacious birds.

3. Rain Forest Biome:

They occur in those tropical and subtropical parts where torrential rains fall practically every day and where a well-defined rainy season characterizes the winter. Rain forests exhibit a communal coexistence of up to several hundred different species of trees. They cover much of Central Africa, South and Southeast Asia, Central America, and South America.

However, in contrast to rain forests in the tropics, the species diversity of temperate rain forests is quite low. A tropical rain forest generally has a hundred or more species of trees, and as many as 500 have been observed m one such forest. Two trees of the same species seldom stand near each other. However, the actual species present may be totally different in rain forests found in widely separated regions of the earth.

Tropical rain forest biome receives about 200 cm of precipitation during a year. The productivity of this biome is more than that of any other terrestrial biome. Because of high temperature and abundant moisture, plant litter decomposes quickly and the vegetation immediately takes up the nutrients released. A striking feature of a tropical rain forest is the vertical stratification of plant communities.

Trees in such forests are normally so crowded together that they form a continuous overhead canopy of branches and foliage, which cuts off practically all the sunlight, much of the rain water and wind. As a result, the forest floor is very humid and quite dark and, therefore, plants that require only a minimum of light populate it.

Apart from the forest trees themselves climbing Lianas and Epiphytes are quite characteristic of the tropical rain forests. Rooted in the dark forest floor, lianas are climbing vines, which use the standing trees as supports upon which they climb toward the canopy where they spread their leaves in the light. Epiphytes grow on other plants. Orchids, ferns, and many other epiphytes form veritable aerial gardens among the high branches of the trees of rain forests.

In rain forests animal communities too are stratified vertically into different habitats found between canopy and ground. A much larger proportion of animals live in the upper layers of the vegetation than in temperate forests where most of the life is near the ground level. For example, 31 to 59 species of mammals in British Guiana are arboreal and 5 are amphibious, leaving only 23, which live on the ground.

In addition to the arboreal mammals (monkeys, rodents, squirrels), there is an abundance of chameleons, iguanas, geckos, arboreal snakes, frogs, and birds. Ants, termites, beetles and the Orthopetra, as well as butterflies and moths are ecologically important. Frogs may be present in large numbers.

In the Old World rain forests, ground-dwelling herbivores include musk deer, small forest antelopes, and forest pigs. In both hemispheres partly arboreal carnivores, especially cats such as leopard and jaguar, kill the herbivores. Symbiosis between animals and epiphytes is widespread. Many animals of the rain forest are nocturnal.

4. Deciduous Forest Biome:

In the temperate zones such as Europe, eastern Asia, southern Canada and eastern part of United States, the most characteristic biome is the deciduous forest. Tropical deciduous forests also occur in many tropical parts of the world. The fundamental climatic conditions of a deciduous forest biome are cold winters, warm summers, and well spaced rains bringing about 75 to 100 cm of precipitation per year. The biome is also characterized by seasonal temperature variations, which are greater than daily variations.

Winter makes the growing season discontinuous, and the flora is adapted to this. The temperate deciduous forests cover many parts of the United States, the British Isles, Central Europe, China and south-eastern Siberia. Similar forests also occur in the Temperate Zone of South America, but they are not so widespread there.

The term “deciduous” implies the most obvious characteristic of this biome and the most obvious adaptation to it (i.e., trees shed their leaves and hibernate). Half the year or somewhat more is the growing season, when perennial plants put on their leaves and are active, while annual plants go through the whole cycle from seed to seed.

The rest of the year the trees are bare. Common trees of the deciduous forest are beech, tulip, sycamore, maple, oak, hickory, elm, poplar, and birch. Chestnuts were also formerly common. A deciduous forest differs from a rain forest in that trees are spaced at considerable distance from one another and there are only few species of trees. Compared with the hundreds of tree species in a rain forest, there may be only about 10 or 20 in a deciduous forest.

The most striking herbivorous mammals of a deciduous forest are the browsing deer, mainly the white-tailed deer in North America and other species in Eurasia and South America. In Eurasia wild pigs (or boars) are also found in this biome, but they do not occur native in America. The principal carnivores are the large cats including puma, mountain lion, cougar, or panther (all one species, Felis concolor) ranging into most of the environments of North and South America. Foxes are also common in them.

The arboreal martens are locally as common here as in the taiga, and the raccoon (absent in Eurasia) is especially abundant in deciduous forests of North America. Throughout the world these forests are also rich in tree squirrels. Among mammals of the North American deciduous forests, over a third of the species are mainly arboreal. Tree-nesting birds are also abundant and woodpeckers are characteristic of this biome. The leaf and mold-covered forest floor supports many species of invertebrates and fungi.

5. Taiga Biome:

North of the deciduous forests and the grasslands across northern Europe, Siberia, and Canada, stretches the taiga (northern coniferous forest biome). It is also called the boreal forest biome. This is a biome of long, severe winters and of growing seasons limited largely to the few months of summer. The vegetation is extremely frost-tolerant, as temperatures may fall to – 60° C during the winter. The precipitation is in the range of 40-100 cm. Hardy conifers, spruce in particular, are most representative of the flora and moose, wolves, and bears of the fauna.

The taiga is largely a zone of forests, which differ from other types of forests in that they usually consist of single species of coniferous tree. Thus, over a large area, spruce, for example, may be the only kind of tree present. Among other coniferous trees, alder, birch, and juniper thickets are common. They might be found in an adjacent equally large area. Many of the larger herbivorous vertebrates, such as the moose (elk), snowshoe hare, and grouse depend on broad leaved developmental communities of spruce forest.

The seeds of conifers provide important food for many animals such as squirrels, siskins, and crossbills. In taiga, seasonal periodicity is pronounced and populations tend to oscillate. The snowshoe hare-lynx cycles are classic examples. Smaller mammals are much more varied than in the tundra. Black bears, wolves, and martens are more common in this biome that elsewhere.

Fishers, wolverines, lynex and some rodents such as the northern vole are practically confined to it. Squirrels and birds also thrive in coniferous forests. Most of the birds here, however, are summer breeders and migrate southward in the autumn. The many species of insects remain dormant during the severe winters.

6. Tundra Biome:

In Asia, Europe, and North America a vast northern zone encircling the Arctic Ocean is known as the tundra. This biome lies north of the taiga. The tundra has the arctic climate, which is cold, and there may be continuous night during the winter season and continuous daylight, of comparatively low intensity, during the summer. Some distance below the surface, the ground is permanently frozen.

This is called permafrost. Above the ground, frost can form even during the summer plants often freeze solid and remain dormant up to the growing season. The latter is very brief, as in the deserts but in the tundra the chief limiting factor is temperature, and not water supply. However, alpine tundra does not contain permafrost.

Precipitation is generally less than 50-60 cm but in low lying areas soils may remain saturated with water during most of the growing season. Plants are low, ground hugging forms, and frees are absent. Lichens (especially reindeer moss), mosses (especially Sphagnum) coniferous and other shrubby growths, and herbs with brilliantly coloured flowers, are characteristic of the habitat.

The warm-blooded animals of this biome are caribou, reindeer, musk ox, arctic hare, arctic fox, lemming, and polar bear. They are well protected by fur. Some of the resident birds, like the ptarmigan (an arctic grouse-like bird), and mammals, like the snowshoe hare, turn white in winter. White is protective colouration in a snowy environment and also minimizes heat loss by radiation. Musk oxen and caribou (wild reindeer) are large herbivores, which depend mainly on the abundant moss and lichens. Arctic hares and lemmings (small, rat-like rodents) are numerous and are preyed on by arctic foxes.

Polar bears are amphibious, frequenting coasts and ice flows but also wandering inland on the tundra. Insects, especially flies, are so numerous as to be one of the major drawbacks of the tundra from the human point of view. Their eggs and larvae are particularly cold resistant and the adults appear by the billions on warmer summer days.

Migratory birds, especially waterfowl, are conspicuous during the short summer. Well marked oscillations, or cycles, in population density of some animals are characteristic of tundra communities. For example, when lemmings abound, predatory birds, such as owls are abundant and breed. Whereas few predators breed at all during the years of prey scarcity.

However, the life does not end at the northern margin of the tundra but extends farther into the ice and bleak rock of the soilless polar region. Polar life is almost exclusively animal, and it is not really terrestrial in any way but is based on the sea

However, some authors also describe the so-called alpine tundra biome. This occurs above the tree line as in the Rocky Mountains of North America and on the Tibetan Plateau of Central Asia. The alpine and arctic tundra have some similarities as well as differences. Alpine tundra does not contain permafrost it has warmer and longer growing seasons resulting in higher productivity, less severe winters, and higher species diversity than arctic tundra.


Description of the Mango Tree

Mango trees are evergreen trees with a thick trunk and wide canopy. They can grow to a height of 100 feet or more with a canopy extending to about 35 feet or more, depending upon the climate and richness of the soil.

The leaves are leathery, lanceolate, and found in simple-alternate arrangement on the branches. They are dark green and about 5� inches in length.

Flowers are borne in panicles 4� inches long and have several hundred small, white flowers that are 1/4-inch wide when fully open. Most of the flowers function as male flowers, but some are bisexual and form fruits after pollination. Pollination takes place through flies, wasps, bees, and even ants.

The mango is called the "King of Fruits" due to its creamy, rich taste and aromatic flavor. The fruit of the mango tree is a drupe that varies in size and shape with shades of red and yellow or dull green. The fruit can be oval, round, heart-shaped, kidney-shaped, or long and slender. It has a single flat, large seed with a surrounding fleshy layer.


Pines are well adapted to life in cold environments and in nutrient-poor soils. Their growth form helps to reduce the amount of snow each branch must support over winter and prevents branches from falling off. Often the fallen needles of pines will form a dense mat on the forest floor and prevent other plants growing underneath them. Often being evergreen plants, pines can form a well-developed canopy and reduce the amount of light penetrating to the forest floor. This again prevents other plants growing underneath pines in pine forests.

Pines enjoy receiving high levels of light and can struggle to survive in shaded areas. They also struggle to compete with broad-leaved plants in productive areas such as tropical rainforests.

Many species have the ability to withstand burning. Their thick layer of bark helps to protect the tree during fires and prevent burning of vulnerable woody tissue.


Tundra

  • The climate is so cold in winter that even the long days of summer are unable to thaw the permafrost beneath the surface layers of soil.
  • Sphagnum moss, a wide variety of lichens, and some grasses and fast-growing annuals dominate the landscape during the short growing season.
  • Caribou feed on this growth as do vast numbers of insects.
  • Swarms of migrating birds, especially waterfowl, invade the tundra in the summer to raise their young, feeding them on a large variety of aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates.
  • As the brief arctic summer draws to a close, the birds fly south, and
  • all but a few of the permanent residents, in one way or another, prepare themselves to spend the winter in a dormant state.

Unit 1: Chemistry of Life

You’ll learn about water’s role as the basis of life and the functions of macromolecules like lipids and proteins.

  • The structure and chemical properties of water
  • The makeup and properties of macromolecules
  • The structure of DNA and RNA

On The Exam

Unit 2: Cell Structure and Function

You’ll study the makeup of cells and the fundamentals of evolution.

  • Cellular components and functions of those components
  • Cell interaction with its environment
  • The cell membrane structure and function
  • Cell regulatory mechanisms like osmosis and selective permeability
  • Cellular compartmentalization

On The Exam

Unit 3: Cellular Energetics

You’ll explore how cells interact with their environment and how fundamental biological processes work at the cellular level.

  • The structure and function of enzymes
  • The role of energy in living systems
  • The processes of photosynthesis
  • The processes of cellular respiration
  • Molecular diversity and cellular response to environmental changes

On The Exam

Unit 4: Cell Communication and Cell Cycle

You’ll learn how cells grow and reproduce, as well as how cells communicate.

  • The mechanisms of cell communication
  • Signal transduction
  • Cellular responses and feedback mechanisms
  • The events in a cell cycle

On The Exam

Unit 5: Heredity

You’ll learn how traits are passed down from one generation to the next.

  • The process and function of meiosis
  • The concepts genetic diversity
  • Mendel’s laws and probability
  • Non-mendelian Inheritance
  • Factors affecting inheritance and gene expression

On The Exam

Unit 6: Gene Expression and Regulation

You’ll study how hereditary information passes from parent to offspring and how those traits are expressed.

  • The roles and functions of DNA and RNA
  • The mechanisms of gene expression
  • How genotype affects phenotype
  • Mutations, genetic diversity, and natural selection
  • Genetic engineering and biotechnology

On The Exam

Unit 7: Natural Selection

You’ll learn about Darwin’s theory, the concept of natural selection, and evolution.

  • Evidential support for evolution and common ancestry
  • The mechanisms of natural selection and speciation
  • Environmental and human-caused factors in evolution
  • Charting species ancestry through phylogenetic trees and cladograms
  • Extinction
  • Models of the origin of life on Earth

On The Exam

Unit 8: Ecology

You’ll explore biological concepts at a broader organism level and analyze how populations interact within ecosystems.

  • Communication and responses to environmental changes
  • Energy flow within and across ecosystems
  • Factors in the growth, density, and success of populations
  • Factors in community and ecosystem dynamics
  • Invasive species, human interaction, and environmental changes

On The Exam


Contents

The word cockatoo dates from the 17th century and is derived from Dutch kaketoe, which is from Malay kakaktua. Seventeenth-century variants include cacato, cockatoon and crockadore, and cokato, cocatore and cocatoo were used in the eighteenth century. [3] [4] The derivation has also been used for the family and generic names Cacatuidae and Cacatua, respectively. [5]

In Australian slang or vernacular speech, a person who is assigned to keep watch while others undertake clandestine or illegal activities, particularly gambling, may be referred to as a "cockatoo". [6] Proprietors of small agricultural undertakings are often jocularly or slightly disparagingly referred to as "cocky farmers." [7]

The cockatoos were first defined as a subfamily Cacatuinae within the parrot family Psittacidae by the English naturalist George Robert Gray in 1840, with Cacatua the first listed and type genus. [13] This group has alternately been considered as either a full or subfamily by different authorities. The American ornithologist James Lee Peters in his 1937 Check-list of Birds of the World, Sibley and Monroe in 1990 maintained it as a subfamily, while parrot expert Joseph Forshaw classified it as a family in 1973. [14] Subsequent molecular studies indicate that the earliest offshoot from the original parrot ancestors were the New Zealand parrots of the superfamily Strigopoidea, and following this the cockatoos, now a well-defined group or clade, split off from the remaining parrots, which then radiated across the Southern Hemisphere and diversified into the many species of parrots, parakeets, macaws, lories, lorikeets, lovebirds and other true parrots of the superfamily Psittacoidea. [8] [9] [10] [11] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19]

The relationships among various cockatoo genera are largely resolved, [8] [9] [11] [12] [20] [21] although the placement of the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) at the base of the cockatoos remains uncertain. The cockatiel is alternatively placed basal to all other cockatoo species, [8] [20] as the sister taxon to the black cockatoo species of the genus Calyptorhynchus [11] [12] [21] or as the sister taxon to a clade consisting of the white and pink cockatoo genera as well as the palm cockatoo. [9] The remaining species are within two main clades, one consisting of the black species of the genus Calyptorhynchus while the other contains the remaining species. [8] [9] [11] [20] [21] According to most authorities, the second clade includes the black palm cockatoo (Probosciger), the grey and reddish galah (Eolophus), the gang-gang cockatoo (Callocephalon) and the pinkish Major Mitchell's cockatoo (Lophochroa), [8] [9] [11] [20] although Probosciger is sometimes placed basal to all other species. [12] The remaining species are mainly white or slightly pinkish and all belong to the genus Cacatua. [8] [9] [10] [11] [20] The genera Eolophus, Lophochroa and Cacatua are hypomelanistic. The genus Cacatua is further subdivided into the subgenera Licmetis, commonly known as corellas, and Cacatua, referred to as white cockatoos. [8] [12] [20] [21] [22] Confusingly, the term "white cockatoo" has also been applied to the whole genus. [23] [24] The five cockatoo species of the genus Calyptorhynchus are commonly known as black cockatoos, [22] and are divided into two subgenera—Calyptorhynchus and Zanda. The former group are sexually dichromatic, with the females having prominently barred plumage. [25] The two are also distinguished by differences in the food-begging calls of juveniles. [26]

The fossil record of cockatoos is even more limited than that of parrots in general, with only one truly ancient cockatoo fossil known: a species of Cacatua, most probably subgenus Licmetis, found in Early Miocene (16–23 million years ago) deposits of Riversleigh, Australia. [27] Although fragmentary, the remains are similar to the western corella and the galah. [28] In Melanesia, subfossil bones of Cacatua species which apparently did not survive early human settlement have been found on New Caledonia and New Ireland. [29] [30] The bearing of these fossils on cockatoo evolution and phylogeny is fairly limited, although the Riversleigh fossil does allow tentative dating of the divergence of subfamilies.

Genera and species Edit

There are about 44 different birds in the cockatoo family Cacatuidae including recognized subspecies. The current subdivision of this family is as follows: [Note 1]

Subfamily Calyptorhynchinae: The black cockatoos

    Genus Calyptorhynchus – black-and-red cockatoos
      , Calyptorhynchus banksii(Latham, 1790) (5 subspecies) , Calyptorhynchus lathami(Temminck, 1807) (3 subspecies)
      , Zanda funerea(Shaw, 1794) (2–3 subspecies) , Zanda latirostrisCarnaby, 1948 , Zanda baudiniiLear, 1832
    • Tribe Microglossini: One genus with one species, the black palm cockatoo.
      • Genus Probosciger
        • Palm cockatoo, Probosciger aterrimus(Gmelin, 1788) (4 subspecies)
        • Genus Callocephalon
          • Gang-gang cockatoo, Callocephalon fimbriatum(Grant, 1803)
          • Galah, Eolophus roseicapilla(Vieillot, 1817) (3 subspecies)
          • Major Mitchell's cockatoo or Leadbeater's cockatoo, Lophochroa leadbeateri(Vigors, 1831) (2 subspecies)
          • Subgenus Cacatua – true white cockatoos
              or lesser sulphur-crested cockatoo, Cacatua sulphurea(Gmelin, 1788) (4 subspecies) , Cacatua galerita(Latham, 1790) (4 subspecies) , Cacatua ophthalmicaSclater, 1864 , Cacatua alba(Müller, 1776) , Cacatua moluccensis(Gmelin, 1788)
            • , Cacatua tenuirostris(Kuhl, 1820) , Cacatua pastinator(Gould, 1841) (2 subspecies) (also bare-eyed cockatoo), Cacatua sanguineaGould, 1843 (4 subspecies) or Goffin's cockatoo, Cacatua goffinianaRoselaar and Michels, 2004[32] , Cacatua ducorpsiiPucheran, 1853 , Cacatua haematuropygia(Müller, 1776)
        • The cockatoos are generally medium to large parrots of stocky build, which range from 30–60 cm (12–24 in) in length and 300–1,200 g (0.66–2.65 lb) in weight however, one species, the cockatiel, is considerably smaller and slimmer than the other species, being 32 cm (13 in) long (including its long pointed tail feathers) and 80–100 g (2.8–3.5 oz) in weight. [6] [31] [33] [34] The movable headcrest, which is present in all cockatoos, is spectacular in many species [35] it is raised when the bird lands from flying or when it is aroused. [36] Cockatoos share many features with other parrots, including the characteristic curved beak shape and a zygodactyl foot, with the two middle toes forward and the two outer toes backward. [37] They differ in the presence of an erectile crest and their lack of the Dyck texture feather composition which causes the bright blues and greens seen in true parrots. [34]

          Like other parrots, cockatoos have short legs, strong claws, a waddling gait [34] and often use their strong bill as a third limb when climbing through branches. They generally have long broad wings used in rapid flight, with speeds up to 70 km/h (43 mph) being recorded for galahs. [38] The members of the genus Calyptorhynchus and larger white cockatoos, such as the sulphur-crested cockatoo and Major Mitchell's cockatoo, have shorter, rounder wings and a more leisurely flight. [38]

          Cockatoos have a large bill, which is kept sharp by rasping the two mandibles together when resting. The bill is complemented by a large muscular tongue which helps manipulate seeds inside the bill so that they can be de-husked before eating. [6] During the de-husking, the lower mandible applies the pressure, the tongue holds the seed in place and the upper mandible acts as an anvil. The eye region of the skull is reinforced to support muscles which move the mandibles sideways. [34] The bills of male cockatoos are generally slightly larger than those of their female counterparts, but this size difference is quite marked in the palm cockatoo. [39]

          The plumage of the cockatoos is less brightly coloured than that of the other parrots, with species generally being either black, grey or white. Many species have smaller areas of colour on their plumage, often yellow, pink and red, usually on the crest or tail. [40] The galah and Major Mitchell's cockatoo are more broadly coloured in pink tones. [41] Several species have a brightly coloured bare area around the eye and face known as a periophthalmic ring the large red patch of bare skin of the palm cockatoo is the most extensive and covers some of the face, while it is more restricted in some other species of white cockatoo, notably the corellas and blue-eyed cockatoo. [41] The plumage of males and females is similar in most species. The plumage of the female cockatiel is duller than the male, but the most marked sexual dimorphism occurs in the gang-gang cockatoo and the two species of black cockatoos in the subgenus Calyptorhynchus, namely the red-tailed and glossy black cockatoos. [39] The iris colour differs in a few species, being pink or red in the female galah and Major Mitchell's cockatoo and red-brown in some other female white cockatoo species. The males all have dark brown irises. [39]

          Cockatoos maintain their plumage with frequent preening throughout the day. They remove dirt and oil and realign feather barbs by nibbling their feathers. They also preen other birds' feathers that are otherwise hard to get at. Cockatoos produce preen-oil from a gland on their lower back and apply it by wiping their plumage with their heads or already oiled feathers. Powder-down is produced by specialised feathers in the lumbar region and distributed by the preening cockatoo all over the plumage. [42]

          Moulting is very slow and complex. Black cockatoos appear to replace their flight feathers one at a time, their moult taking two years to complete. This process is much shorter in other species, such as the galah and long-billed corella, which each take around six months to replace all their flight feathers. [42]

          Voice Edit

          The vocalisations of cockatoos are loud and harsh. [6] They serve a number of functions, including allowing individuals to recognize one another, alerting others of predators, indicating individual moods, maintaining the cohesion of a flock and as warnings when defending nests. The use of calls and number of specific calls varies by species the Carnaby's black cockatoo has as many as 15 types of call, whereas others, such as Major Mitchell's cockatoo, have fewer. Some, like the gang-gang cockatoo, are comparatively quiet but do have softer growling calls when feeding. In addition to vocalisations, palm cockatoos communicate over large distances by drumming on a dead branch with a stick. [43] Cockatoo species also make a characteristic hissing sound when threatened. [36]

          Cockatoos have a much more restricted range than the true parrots, occurring naturally only in Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and some Pacific regions. [6] Eleven of the 21 species exist in the wild only in Australia, while seven species occur only in the islands of the Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. No cockatoo species are found in Borneo, despite their presence on nearby Palawan and Sulawesi or many Pacific islands, [44] although fossil remains have been recorded from New Caledonia. [29]

          Three species occur in both New Guinea and Australia. [45] Some species have widespread distributions, with the galah, for example, occurring over most of Australia, whereas other species have tiny distributions, confined to a small part of the continent, such as the Baudin's black cockatoo of Western Australia or to a small island group, such as the Tanimbar corella, which is restricted to the Tanimbar Islands of Indonesia. Some cockatoos have been introduced accidentally to areas outside their natural range such as New Zealand, Singapore, and Palau, [46] while two Australian corella species have been introduced to parts of the continent where they are not native.

          Cockatoos occupy a wide range of habitats from forests in subalpine regions to mangroves. However, no species is found in all types of habitat. [47] The most widespread species, [6] such as the galah and cockatiel, [48] are open-country specialists that feed on grass seeds. [6] They are often highly mobile fast flyers and are nomadic. Flocks of birds move across large areas of the inland, locating and feeding on seed and other food sources. Drought may force flocks from more arid areas to move further into farming areas. [48] Other cockatoo species, such as the glossy black cockatoo, inhabit woodlands, rainforests, shrublands and even alpine forests. The red-vented cockatoo inhabits mangroves and its absence from northern Luzon may be related to the lack of mangrove forests there. [49] Forest-dwelling cockatoos are generally sedentary, as the food supply is more stable and predictable. [50] Several species have adapted well to human modified habitats and are found in agricultural areas and even busy cities. [51]

          Cockatoos are diurnal and require daylight to find their food. [6] They are not early risers, instead waiting until the sun has warmed their roosting sites before feeding. All species are generally highly social and roost, forage and travel in colourful and noisy flocks. These vary in size depending on availability of food in times of plenty, flocks are small and number a hundred birds or less, while in droughts or other times of adversity, they may swell up to contain thousands or even tens of thousands of birds one record from the Kimberley noted a flock of 32,000 little corellas. Species that inhabit open country form larger flocks than those of forested areas. [52]

          Some species require roosting sites that are located near drinking sites other species travel great distances between the roosting and feeding sites. [53] Cockatoos have several characteristic methods of bathing they may hang upside down or fly about in the rain or flutter in wet leaves in the canopy. [36] Cockatoos have a preferred "footedness" analogous to human handedness. Most species are left-footed with 87–100% of individuals using their left feet to eat, but a few species favor their right foot. [54]

          Breeding Edit

          Cockatoos are monogamous breeders, with pair bonds that can last many years. Many birds pair up in flocks before they reach sexual maturity and delay breeding for a year at least. Females breed for the first time anywhere from three to seven years of age and males are often older. Sexual maturity is delayed so birds can develop the skills for raising and parenting young, which is prolonged compared with other birds the young of some species remain with their parents for up to a year. [55] Cockatoos may also display site fidelity, returning to the same nesting sites in consecutive years. [43] Courtship is generally simple, particularly for established pairs, with the black cockatoos alone engaging in courtship feeding. Established pairs do engage in preening each other, but all forms of courtship drop off after incubation begins, possibly due to the strength of the pair-bond. [56]

          Like most parrots, the cockatoos are cavity nesters, nesting in holes in trees, [57] which they are unable to excavate themselves. [58] These hollows are formed from decay or destruction of wood by branches breaking off, fungi or insects such as termites or even woodpeckers where their ranges overlap. [59] In many places these holes are scarce and the source of competition, both with other members of the same species and with other species and types of animal. [60] In general, cockatoos choose hollows only a little larger than themselves, hence different-sized species nest in holes of corresponding (and different) sizes. If given the opportunity, cockatoos prefer nesting over 7 or 8 metres (23 or 26 ft) above the ground [59] and close to water and food. [61]

          The nesting hollows are lined with sticks, wood chips and branches with leaves. The eggs of cockatoos are oval and initially white, as their location makes camouflage unnecessary. [62] However, they do become discoloured over the course of incubation. They range in size from 55 mm × 37 mm (2.2 in × 1.5 in) in the palm and red-tailed black cockatoos, to 26 mm × 19 mm (1.02 in × 0.75 in) in the cockatiel. [62] Clutch size varies within the family, with the palm cockatoo and some other larger cockatoos laying only a single egg and the smaller species laying anywhere between two and eight eggs. Food supply also plays a role in clutch size. [63] Some species can lay a second clutch if the first fails. [64] Around 20% of eggs laid are infertile. [65] The cockatoos' incubation and brooding responsibilities may either be undertaken by the female alone in the case of the black cockatoos or shared amongst the sexes as happens in the other species. In the case of the black cockatoos, the female is provisioned by the male several times a day. The young of all species are born covered in yellowish down, bar the palm cockatoo, whose young are born naked. [66] Cockatoo incubation times are dependent on species size, with the smaller cockatiels having a period of around 20 days and the larger Carnaby's black cockatoo incubating its eggs for up to 29 days. [6]

          The nestling period also varies by species size, with larger species having longer nestling periods. It is also affected by season and environmental factors and by competition with siblings in species with clutch sizes greater than one. Much of what is known about the nestling period of some species is dependent on aviary studies – aviary cockatiels can fledge after 5 weeks and the large palm cockatoos after 11 weeks. [6] During this period, the young become covered in juvenile plumage while remaining in the hollow. Wings and tail feathers are slow to grow initially but more rapid as the primary feathers appear. Nestlings quickly reach about 80–90% of adult weight about two-thirds of the time through this period, plateauing before they leave the hollow they fledge at this weight with wing and tail feathers still to grow a little before reaching adult dimensions. [67] Growth rate of the young, as well as numbers fledged, are adversely impacted by reduced food supply and poor weather conditions. [68]

          Diet and feeding Edit

          Cockatoos are versatile feeders and consume a range of mainly vegetable food items. Seeds form a large part of the diet of all species these are opened with their large and powerful bills. The galahs, corellas and some of the black cockatoos feed primarily on the ground others feed mostly in trees. [6] The ground-feeding species tend to forage in flocks, which form tight, squabbling groups where seeds are concentrated and dispersed lines where food is more sparsely distributed [69] they also prefer open areas where visibility is good. The western and long-billed corellas have elongated bills to excavate tubers and roots and the Major Mitchell's cockatoo walks in a circle around the doublegree (Emex australis) to twist out and remove the underground parts. [70]

          Many species forage for food in the canopy of trees, taking advantage of serotiny (the storage of a large supply of seed in cones or gumnuts by plant genera such as Eucalyptus, Banksia and Hakea), a natural feature of the Australian landscape in dryer regions. These woody fruiting bodies are inaccessible to many species and harvested in the main by parrots, cockatoos and rodents in more tropical regions. The larger cones can be opened by the large bills of cockatoos but are too strong for smaller animals. [71] Many nuts and fruits lie on the end of small branches which are unable to support the weight of the foraging cockatoo, which instead bends the branch towards itself and holds it with its foot. [72]

          While some cockatoos are generalists taking a wide range of foods, others are specialists. The glossy black cockatoo specialises in the cones of trees of the genus Allocasuarina, preferring a single species, A. verticillata. It holds the cones in its foot and shreds them with its powerful bill before removing the seeds with its tongue. [73] Some species take large numbers of insects, particularly when breeding in fact the bulk of the yellow-tailed black cockatoo's diet is made up of insects. The large bill is used in order to extract grubs and larvae from rotting wood. The amount of time cockatoos have to spend foraging varies with the season. [72] During times of plenty they may need to feed for only a few hours in the day, in the morning and evening, then spend the rest of the day roosting or preening in trees, but during the winter most of the day may be spent foraging. The birds have increased nutritional requirements during the breeding season, so they spend more time foraging for food during this time. Cockatoos have large crops, which allow them to store and digest food for some time after retiring to a tree. [74]

          Predators and threats Edit

          The peregrine falcon and little eagle have been reported taking galahs and the wedge-tailed eagle has been observed killing a sulphur-crested cockatoo. [75] Eggs and nestlings are vulnerable to many hazards. Various species of monitor lizard (Varanus) are able to climb trees and enter hollows. Other predators recorded include the spotted wood owl on Rasa Island in the Philippines the amethystine python, black butcherbird and rodents including the giant white-tailed rat [76] in Cape York and brushtail possum on Kangaroo Island. Furthermore, galahs and little corellas competing for nesting space with the glossy black cockatoo on Kangaroo Island have been recorded killing nestlings of the latter species there. Severe storms may also flood hollows drowning the young and termite or borer activity may lead to the internal collapse of nests. [77]

          Like other parrots, cockatoos can be afflicted by psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD). The viral infection causes feather loss and beak malformation and reduces the bird's overall immunity. Particularly prevalent in sulphur-crested cockatoos, little corellas and galahs, it has been recorded in 14 species of cockatoo to date. Although unlikely to significantly impact on large, healthy populations of birds in the wild, PBFD may pose a high risk to smaller stressed populations. [78]

          A white cockatoo and a sulphur-crested cockatoo were found to be infected with the protozoon Haemoproteus and another sulphur-crested cockatoo had the malaria parasite Plasmodium on analysis of faecal samples at Almuñecar ornithological garden in Granada in Spain. [79] Like amazon parrots and macaws, cockatoos frequently develop cloacal papillomas. The relationship with malignancy is unknown, as is the cause, although a parrot papilloma virus has been isolated from a grey parrot with the condition. [80]

          Human activities have had positive effects on some species of cockatoo and negative effects on others. Many species of open country have benefited greatly from anthropogenic changes to the landscape, with the great increase in reliable seed food sources, available water and have also adapted well to a diet including foreign foodstuffs. This benefit appears to be restricted to Australian species, as cockatoos favouring open country outside Australia have not become more abundant. Predominantly forest-dwelling species have suffered greatly from habitat destruction in the main, they appear to have a more specialised diet and have not been able to incorporate exotic food into their diet. A notable exception is the yellow-tailed black cockatoo in eastern Australia. [81]

          Pests Edit

          Several species of cockatoo can be serious agricultural pests. [82] They are sometimes controlled by shooting, poisoning or capture followed by gassing. Non-lethal damage mitigation methods used include scaring, habitat manipulation and the provision of decoy food dumps or sacrifice crops to distract them from the main crop. They can be a nuisance in urban areas due to destruction of property. They maintain their bills in the wild by chewing on wood but, in suburbia, they may chew outdoor furniture, door and window frames [51] soft decorative timbers such as western red cedar are readily demolished. [83] Birds may also target external wiring and fixtures such as solar water heaters, [51] television antennae and satellite dishes. [83] A business in central Melbourne suffered as sulphur-crested cockatoos repeatedly stripped the silicone sealant from the plate glass windows. [84] Galahs and red-tailed black cockatoos have stripped electrical cabling in rural areas and tarpaulin is targeted elsewhere. [84] Outside Australia, the Tanimbar corella is a pest on Yamdena Island where it raids maize crops. [85]

          In 1995 the Government of the state of Victoria published a report on problems caused by long-billed corellas, sulphur-crested cockatoos and galahs, three species which, along with the little corella, have large and growing populations, having benefited from anthropogenic changes to the landscape. Subsequent to the findings and publication of the report, these three species were declared unprotected by a Governor in Council Order under certain conditions and are allowed to be killed where serious damage is being caused by them to trees, vineyards, orchards, recreational reserves and commercial crops. [86] Damage covered by the report included not only that to cereal crops, fruit and nut orchards and some kinds of vegetable crops but also to houses and communications equipment. [87] The little corella is a declared pest of agriculture in Western Australia, where it is an aviculturally introduced species. The birds damage sorghum, maize, sunflower, chickpeas and other crops. They also defoliate amenity trees in parks and gardens, dig for edible roots and corms on sports grounds and race tracks, as well as chew wiring and household fittings. [88] In South Australia, where flocks can number several thousand birds and the species is listed as unprotected, they are accused of defoliating red gums and other native or ornamental trees used for roosting, damaging tarpaulins on grain bunkers, wiring and flashing on buildings, taking grain from newly seeded paddocks and creating a noise nuisance. [89]

          Several rare species and subspecies, too, have been recorded as causing problems. The Carnaby's black cockatoo, a threatened Western Australian endemic, has been considered a pest in pine plantations where the birds chew off the leading shoots of growing pine trees, resulting in bent trunks and reduced timber value. [90] They are also known to damage nut and fruit crops, [91] and have learnt to exploit canola crops. [92] The Baudin's black cockatoo, also endemic to the south-west of Western Australia, can be a pest in apple and pear orchards where it destroys the fruit to extract the seeds. [90] Muir's corella, the nominate subspecies of the western corella, is also a declared pest of agriculture in Western Australia, as well as being nationally vulnerable and listed under state legislation as being "rare or likely to become extinct". [93]


          20 Things You Didn't Know About Trees

          This story appeared in the May 2020 issue. Subscribe to Discover magazine for more stories like this.

          1. I think that I shall never see an organism as vital as a tree. Without these woody, perennial members of the plant kingdom, we might still be squirming around the seafloor

          2. About 400 million years ago, early trees transformed terrestrial environments by reducing atmospheric carbon. The result: more hospitable ecosystems for marine animals experimenting with the landlubber life.

          3. Researchers described one such inviting habitat in December in Current Biology: The find, the earliest forest in the fossil record, is roughly 385 million years old. The site included primitive, fernlike cladoxylopsids as well as species once thought to have evolved millions of years later.

          4. Some of these more advanced varieties also had extensive root systems spreading out more than 30 feet across, suggesting trees got bigger earlier than previously documented.

          5. Today’s biggest of the big are California’s towering redwoods the tallest is about 380 feet. But don’t sell Australia’s Eucalyptus regnans short. Also known as the mountain ash, one specimen in 1881 measured 374 feet.

          6. The calculation, done by a professional surveyor, is considered credible — though they cut the tree down to verify it.

          7. The tallest living mountain ash, found in Tasmania, is about 330 feet tall. A 2019 forest fire damaged the mighty tree, known as Centurion, but it survived. More than a dozen other giants on the Australian island were not so lucky.

          8. Climate change is fueling extreme fire events, threatening trees of all sizes. At the same time, trees are key assets in the fight to save the planet. American forests, for example, offset up to 20 percent of our annual carbon emissions, according to the U.S. Forest Service.

          9. So are more trees the answer to our current crisis? Maybe. In July, a study in Science declared “global tree restoration as our most effective climate change solution to date.”

          10. The authors identified an additional 2.2 billion acres of land worldwide — an area about the size of the entire U.S., including Alaska — that could be turned into forest without infringing on current urban or agricultural areas.

          11. Other researchers raised concerns about haphazard tree planting, however. For example, depending on the locality, adding more trees could increase fire risk, stretch already-limited water supplies and wreck established ecosystems.

          12. Plus, most current reforestation projects focus on creating tree plantations, or mixing crops with trees, rather than allowing a forest to regenerate naturally. Per acre, natural forests store six times more carbon than agroforestry zones and 40 times more than plantations.

          13. Trees are important for the planet’s future, but they’re also great historians. Even minor fluctuations in temperature, precipitation and other factors change cell size and density in tree rings as they form, allowing researchers to reconstruct ancient climate patterns.

          14. Otherworldly phenomena can also leave a mark. In October, researchers reported a significant radiocarbon increase in growth rings dated to the year 660 B.C. in southeastern Poland.

          15. The radioactive isotope spike may reflect a surge in the number of cosmic rays bombarding Earth when the rings formed. While physicists still debate the source of these high-energy particles, they could be remnants of violent cosmic events, such as supernovas.

          16. Trees can also record Earth’s violent inner workings. For example, the Pacific Northwest was long considered to be at low to moderate earthquake risk. In the 1980s, however, researchers studying “ghost forests” along its coast came to a disturbing realization.

          17. These dead, upright tree trunks, clustered in tidal zones, were similar to ghost forests in Alaska that were created when a massive earthquake caused coastal areas to sink several feet and flood with tree-killing saltwater.

          18. Analysis of Washington’s and Oregon’s ghost forests revealed the real danger of the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ), a fault that stretches from Canada’s Vancouver Island to the Northern California coast.

          19. Dating the dead trees helped researchers discover that the CSZ produces megathrust earthquakes — the most powerful kind — about every 400 to 600 years. (It’s been 320 years since the last one, which was big enough to send a tsunami to Japan.)

          20. Ghost forests aside, many mythologies reference a “Tree of Life.” The concept thrives in modern science, too. Biologists employ cladistics — a method that organizes species on schematic trees — to understand how life diversified over time. That’s right: Trees made us possible, and now help us trace how we happened.


          BIOLOGY KINGDOMS OF LIVING THINGS

          Millions of living things inhabit our planet, but did you know that they are divided into five separate kingdoms? Some, like animals and plants, are visible to the naked eye but others, like bacteria, can only be seen under a microscope. Let's delve into the world of the five kingdoms of nature and find out a bit more about them.

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          Living things are divided into five kingdoms: animal, plant, fungi, protist and monera.

          Living things are divided into five kingdoms: animal, plant, fungi, protist and monera.

          Living things are divided into five kingdoms: animal, plant, fungi, protist and monera.

          Living things are divided into five kingdoms: animal, plant, fungi, protist and monera.

          Living things are divided into five kingdoms: animal, plant, fungi, protist and monera.

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          Nobody knows for certain when, how or why life began on Earth, but Aristotle observed 2,400 years ago that all the planet's biodiversity was of animal or plant origin. This initial observation by the Greek philosopher was expanded in the 19th and 20th centuries by the discovery of new kingdoms, finally arriving at today's widely-recognised five, which cover the 8.7 million species that live on Earth, according to estimates by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

          WHAT IS A KINGDOM IN BIOLOGY

          The system of biological kingdoms is the way in which science classifies living things according to their ancestry over the course of evolution. This means that all the species that make up these five large groups - some recent theories split them further into six or even seven - have common ancestors and therefore share some of their genes and belong to the same family tree.

          As well as the kingdoms of living things there are other taxonomic categories within the same classification system such as, for instance, domain, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. They all follow a hierarchical order and are dependent on each other, so some divisions include others. In this way, the domain includes the kingdom, the kingdom the phylum, the phylum the class, and so on.

          CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FIVE KINGDOMS OF LIVING THINGS

          All the species in a particular kingdom have similar characteristics in terms of their growth and the way they function. Now let's look at where the family relationships that define nature's kingdoms come from:

          Nutrition. Autotrophic (makes its own food) or heterotrophic (feeds on other living things).

          Cell organisation. Unicellular (having only one cell) or multicellular (having two or more cells).

          Cell type. Eukaryotes (the genetic material is surrounded by a membrane) or prokaryotes (lacking a membrane).

          Respiration. Aerobic (needs oxygen) or anaerobic (does not use oxygen).

          Reproduction. Sexual, asexual or through spores.

          Movement. Self-moving or static.

          THE CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS INTO FIVE KINGDOMS

          The first person to divide living things into five broad kingdoms was North American ecologist Robert Whittaker. This researcher proved in 1959 that fungi were not plant organisms - previously it was thought that they were - and a decade later he proposed the creation of the fungi kingdom to differentiate them from plants. Whittaker's theory was widely accepted and the scientific community thereby added a new group to the previous four-kingdom system, established by the American biologist Herbert Copeland in 1956.

          Animal kingdom

          The kingdom Animalia is the most evolved and is divided into two large groups - vertebrates and invertebrates. These animals are multi-celled, heterotrophic eukaryotes with aerobic respiration, sexual reproduction and the ability to move. This kingdom is one of the most diverse and comprises mammals, fish, birds, reptiles, amphibians, insects, molluscs and annelids, among others.

          Plant kingdom

          Trees, plants and other species of vegetation make up part of the Plantae kingdom - one of the oldest, and characterised by its immobile, multicellular and eukaryotic nature. These autotrophic things, whose cells contain cellulose and chlorophyll are essential for life on Earth since they release oxygen through photosynthesis. As regards their method of reproduction, this may be either sexual or asexual.

          The kingdoms of living things and their species at a glance.

          Fungi kingdom

          This name is used to designate the fungi kingdom which includes yeasts, moulds and all species of mushrooms and toadstools. These multicellular aerobic heterotrophic eukaryotes have chitin in their cell walls, feed off other living things, and reproduce through spores.

          Protista kingdom

          This group is the most primitive of the eukaryotics and all the others are descendants of it. The Protista kingdom is paraphyletic - it contains the common ancestor but not all its descendants - and it includes those eukaryotic organisms that are not deemed to be animals, plants or fungi such as protozoa. As it is so heterogeneous it is difficult to categorise it, since its members have very little in common.

          Monera kingdom

          This is the kingdom of microscopic living things and groups together the prokaryotes (archaea and bacteria). This group is present in all habitats and is made up of single-cell things with no defined nucleus. Most bacteria are aerobic and heterotrophic, while the archaea are usually anaerobic and their metabolism is chemosynthetic.

          The classification of the five kingdoms of nature remains the most accepted today, although the latest advances in genetic research have suggested new revisions and reopened the debate among experts. Such is the case for the sixth kingdom of Carl Woese and George Fox, who in 1977 divided bacteria into two types (Archaea and Bacteria), and the seventh kingdom of Cavalier-Smith, who added a new group to the previous six for algae called Chromista.


          The Dormant Tree

          1brettsnyder/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 3.0

          A tree prepares for winter in early fall and protects itself from winter. Leaves fall and the leaf scar closes to protect precious water and nutrients that have been collected during spring and summer. The entire tree undergoes a process of "hybernation" that slows growth and transpiration which will protect it until spring.


          Watch the video: Wo finde ich die Liste der Ehemaligen (October 2022).