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Does anyone know if this is a bedbug? Or maybe a cockroach? I am located in Quebec, Canada.
If you need a clearer picture I'll try to take one without the glass in the way so my camera can focus better. Hopefully it doesn't escape.
I think I can see 5 extremities sticking out under the shield on one side in your image. Hence I think it has a total of 10 extremities. A bedbug, belonging to the class of insects, should have just 6.
I'm pretty sure it's a pill bug (Fig. 1), a family of woodlice (Armadillidiidae), belonging to the isopoda, an order of crustaceans. Crustaceans include the lobsters, crabs and crayfish, to name a few.
Fig. 1. A Pill bug species. source: Natural History of Orange County, CA
A bed bug is an insect and has six extremities (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2. A bed bug species. source: Terminix
So long story short, your species here is not an insect, and hence not a bed bug.
From the limited amount of information you've provided a specific species determination is difficult; there are many pill bugs.
No, it looks like a woodlouse. They are perfectly harmless to humans, and feed on decaying plant matter. They are also called isopods, roly-polies, or pill bugs.
Woodlouse on Wikipedia
Bedbugs - Biology and Control Biting and Stinging Pests
Bedbugs have become a common problem across the country infestations showing up in residences, hotels, college campuses and other places. Many people associate bedbugs with unsanitary conditions, as often is the case with pests such as cockroaches. However, bedbug infestations occur across the spectrum of social and economic settings. Experts have speculated that the increase is more likely due to a number of factors such as increased travel and tourism, changes in tactics used for controlling pests such as cockroaches, and an increasing resistance by bedbugs to the most commonly used insecticides.
Our primary concern is with the &ldquocommon&rdquo bedbug, Cimex lectularius. Another species in the bedbug family (Cimicidae), Cimex hemipterus, is usually found in more tropical areas and may show up particularly for people engaged in international travel. A number of other species are more frequently associated with birds and bats but on occasion invade homes.
Where Else Bed Bugs are Found?
Bed bug hab itat s are not limited to any one specific type of dwelling. Pest control companies have been reporting infestations everywhere including single family homes, multi-family housing, apartments, hotels, hospitals, schools and college campuses, office buildings, retail stores, movie theaters and even public transportation. Nowadays, even five-star hotels and high-end clothing stores are susceptible to infestations.
According to the NPMA's Bugs Without Borders survey, pest management professionals report that residences top the list of places where bed bug infestations are found, with 91 percent of pest professionals report ing finding bed bug habitats in single-family homes and 89 percent in apartments/condominiums. Respondents also reported other common locations for bed bug encounters:
Nursing Homes – 59 percent
Schools & Day Care Centers – 47 percent
Office Buildings – 46 percent
College Dorms – 45 percent
Public Transportation – 19 percent
68 percent in hotels/motels, 59 percent in nursing homes, 47 percent in schools and day care centers, 46 percent in office buildings,
Today, bed bugs can be found throughout almost every region of the world and in all 50 U.S. states. Specifically, the pests were encountered by 17 percent of 2011 Bed Bugs in America survey respondents in the Northeast 20 percent in the Midwest 20 percent in the South and 19 percent in the West.
History of Bed Bugs
Learn about the history of bed bugs and the factors that lead to their resurgence.
Bed Bug Biology
Learn about the biology of bed bugs - from their shape and size to their life cycle and feeding habits.
Signs of Bed Bugs
Learn about the common signs of bed bugs - from bites on the skin to spots on the mattress to sticky eggs.
Bed Bug Facts and Stats
Read bed bug facts and statistics compiled by the National Pest Management Association (NPMA).
Bed Bug Prevention
Learn about bed bug prevention at home and how to avoid bed bugs when traveling with our helpful tips.
Bed Bug Biology
Clothing, Bedding, Curtains, Luggage, handbags, gym bags, backpacks, Luggage racks, Closets, Coffee tables, end tables, Under rugs, Carpet edges, and within Clutter piles.
Bed Bug Bites
Commonly bit areas include the neck, arms, legs, hands, and face. However, they will not be prejudiced. Bed Bugs will bite what they can which includes your back. They have a long needle-like appendage tucked away in a slot under the body. This needle comes out when its time to feed. They will inject saliva that acts as a numbing agent into the skin to keep you unaware during feedings. They will also release anticoagulant so the blood flows freely. The appendage is long enough to reach the blood vessels under the skin.
Be aware they can be in any environment. Just because you believe you they will not bite you doesn’t mean they will leave you alone. Do not purchase used furniture. Blood spots in your sheets is a huge sign that an infestation may be taking place. The lighter the sheets are the easier it is to see and catch early.
Keep suitcases off the floor when traveling whenever possible. The best place to keep luggage would be in the bathroom due to the heat and moisture of the shower. Returning from a trip you should wash everything in hot water while drying them at the highest possible temperature. Keep in mind when traveling, to bring non-heat sensitive clothing if possible. Use mattress covers that cover the entire mattress. Bed bugs are hard to see and may require a professional inspection to identify them properly.
Having Bedbugs means you’re low class. This is not true. Rather, Bed Bugs have no bias in your lifestyle. In fact, in many cases, wealthier individuals who travel often will contract and spread Bed Bugs. These bugs are common and are found nationwide.
Bed bugs transmit diseases. So far this is a Myth. There has not been a single documented case of bedbugs transmitting diseases.
Sleeping with the lights on stops bites. This is a myth. Bed Bugs do prefer darker places to hide, but if need be will come out in the day time.
Pesticides alone will kill bed bugs. Another commonly misunderstood myth. They require specific attention performed by a licensed professional. The chemical treatment will require more than 1 visit and many bedbugs are resistant to the chemicals being sprayed
Bed bug biology.
Aggregation in cracks and crevices throughout the day.
Most active between 00:00-05:00 when hungry
Stimulated by increases in CO2 in the room.
Travel many yards in search of a host.
Probes skin (up to several times) searching for a capillary to feed from.
Feeds for 5-10 minutes at a time, every 3-7 days.
After feeding, returns to aggregate with other bed bugs.
Older literature claims adults can live for up to 1 year without feeding, more recent research suggests all life stages can only live up to approximately 70 days without feeding, although this figure will be longer at cooler temperatures (i.e. <5 o C, 40 F).
Adult bed bugs live between 99 and 300 days in laboratory (at >70F)
Likely less in residential settings, and more variable depending on local conditions.
Resistance to pesticides comes at a fitness cost, so resistant bed bugs will be expected to have shorter life spans and produce fewer eggs than susceptible ones.
Mating occurs after a blood meal is taken, males particularly voracious
Females may be mated with up to 5 males (egg quantity is reduced with successive matings, 25% fewer eggs with repeated matings compared to single mating).
Females can produce eggs from 1 day after mating.
Females can mate with her own offspring, meaning a single fertilised female can start an infestation.
Total number of eggs produced depends on the feeding frequency, not the number of matings.
Females produced 5-20 eggs over the ourse of 10 days after feeding.
Although she will not reproduce again without feeding after this time, she can produce more eggs without mating a further time.
Eggs laid singly or in groups
Approximately 97% of eggs hatch successfully
Laboratory bred females begin to die naturally after roughly 9 feedings.
On average 113 eggs are produced in a female bed bugs lifetime.
Under optimal conditions, populations can double in 16 days.
Approximately 64% of eggs hatch between days 6 and 7.
More than 90% hatched between days 8-9
Hatch rate increases positively with temperature increase.
First instar nymphs (newly hatched) require a blood meal within approximately 3 days before starting to die as a result of dehydration.
7 life stages including 5 nymph molts: Egg, N1, N2, N3, N4, N5, Adult.
Each life stage requires a blood meal to molt to next stage (apart from egg to nymph). If no host, bed bugs will not develop to next stage.
First instar to adult in approximately 37 days.
Information gathered primarily from "Bed Bug Basics", lecture by Dini M. Miller, PhD, Dept. Entomology, Virginia Tech.
Overview. Human bed bugs were virtually eradicated from the developed world in the middle of the 20 th century. However, as of the first decade of the 21 st century, bed bugs are back and winning. Bed bug infestations have been reported from all over the US and Europe, and California is no exception. Together with bat bugs, swallow bugs, and poultry bugs, they belong to the family Cimicidae in the suborder Heteroptera or true bugs (order Hemiptera). Cimicidae comprise less than 100 described species worldwide, but their notorious habits as temporary ectoparasites of birds and mammals, including humans, and the unusual mode of reproduction known as traumatic insemination, have made this small group of true bugs infamous. Recent interest in biology and ecology of bed bugs is now being reinforced by increasing numbers of household infestations on a global scale.
Morphology and Relationships to other Bugs. Bed bugs are small to medium-sized (4-12 mm), ovate, dorsoventrally flattened (i.e., squashed-looking from top to bottom) and of brownish coloration. Their wings are represented by short, non-functional wing pads and they cannot fly. Like other Heteroptera, Cimicidae have sucking mouth parts, and metathoracic and abdominal scent glands that produce a characteristic smell. The mouthparts comprise the labium (externally visible part of the “beak”) and pairs of maxillary and mandibular stylets that form the salivary and food canals. Bed bugs have several specialized features in common with some closely related groups, such as loss of simple eyes known as ocelli.
Bed bugs are closely related to the blood-feeding, bat bugs and predatory minute pirate bugs (family Anthocoridae) that are used as natural enemies in integrated pest management. The Cimicidae are divided into 22 genera, with 12 being exclusively associated with bats, 9 with birds, and only the genus Cimex containing a mixture of bird and mammal ectoparasites. Only three species may be associated with humans, Leptocimex boueti in certain areas of West Africa, Cimex hemipterus in the tropics of the Old and New Worlds, and, most importantly, Cimex lectularius in temperate and subtropical regions worldwide.
Natural History. Bed bugs belong to one of only three lineages within Heteroptera that are obligate blood feeders or hematophages. Similar to other obligate blood-feeding insects, cimicids have microbial symbionts in specialized organs that are presumably important for supplementing the blood diet. Most cimicids exhibit relatively narrow host preferences with either birds or bats as the dominant hosts. The host range extension from bat to humans in Cimex lectularius is likely to have taken place in Europe, the Middle East, or India, as humans moved from a cave-dwelling existence to living in villages and cities. The human bed bug subsequently spread with its new host around the world as people migrated with their belongings.
Because no life stages can fly, bed bugs rely on passive transportation by their host to spread. Consequently, they may hitchhike in suitcases, used furniture, and clothing. Moreover, an adult bed bug can survive for more than a year without a blood meal. Upon arriving at a new location, the prodigious fecundity of an undetected bug, 200-500 eggs per adult female, ensures a rapid increase in their numbers.Bed bugs are nocturnally active with peak feeding activity occurring after midnight. Bed bugs feed on blood about once every 1-2 weeks, while the host is inactive or sleeping. Feeding requires about 5-10 minutes to complete and generally occurs on areas of the body that are exposed while sleeping, such as the face, neck, arms, and hands. Bites may itch and a rash may develop around the bite. Bed bugs locate a host by orienting toward cues including heat, CO2,and host odors. When not feeding, bed bugs are generally concealed in cracks and crevices in their environment, including bed frames, head boards and mattresses. Their negative phototaxis (i.e. move away from light) and positive thigmotaxis (i.e. respond positively to tight spaces) makes them very difficult to locate during daytime hours when they are hiding.
In their resting places, bed bugs usually form aggregations of adults and immature stages that are maintained by aggregation pheromones and mechanical cues. When bugs are disturbed, substances emitted from scent glands function as alarm pheromones that drive dispersal and aggregations break up as bed bugs flee danger.
Apart from obligate blood feeding and host interactions, their unusual reproductive behavior has stimulated considerable research on bed bugs. Reproductive biology of Cimicidae is characterized by traumatic insemination, where sperm is not injected into the genital tract, but rather introduced into the female bed bug after the male pierces the female’s body wall with his reproductive organ. Traumatic insemination systems show tremendous species specific differences ranging from absent or simple to very complex and the study of reproductive structures used in this type of mating may provide insights into the evolution of this unusual mating strategy in the Cimicidae. Immature bed bugs (nymphs) release a chemical signal or pheromone to communicate their non-reproductive status to males, thereby protecting them from male mating attempts which might otherwise be very damaging.
While some viruses have been shown to persist within bed bugs for several weeks, their role in the transmission of human pathogens appears to be negligible. Nevertheless, bed bugs are serious nuisance pests. Infestation rates of human dwellings with bed bugs may reach 100% in some temperate regions and as many a 5,000 bugs may infest a single bed!
Bed Bugs, Humans and Infestation Management. The long and disturbing shared history of humans and bed bugs is reflected in language and legend. All Indo-European, African, and Oriental languages have names for bed bugs and these unpopular companions are mentioned in ancient Greek literature as well as the Talmud and the New Testament. Human sensitivity to the bite of a bed bug ranges from insensitive to severe immune reactions, and depends in part on the level of past exposure. Many people will develop hypersensitivity to bed bug bites following repeated feeding by bed bugs.
After a distinct decrease in infestation rates starting during the 1930s, bed bugs started to spread again in the 1990s. This spread is global, of dramatic proportion, and aided by increasing mobility of humans together with a decreased awareness of bed bugs due to their near absence within modern societies prior to their recent expansion. In North America, the resurgence in bed bug infestations has been aided by widespread resistance of these bugs to pyrethroid insecticides.
An infestation of bed bugs is usually identified by finding the bugs or their dark colored fecal stains in the seams of mattresses and box springs, behind headboards and peeling wallpaper, or in other cracks and crevasses near a sleeping area. The use of a strong flashlight will help in their detection because their strong aversion to light results in considerable movement. Heavy infestations are sometimes associated with a “sweet” odor. Trained dogs provide a very efficient means to detect bed bug infestations, especially when abundance is low, because the dogs can quickly determine by smell whether bed bugs are present in a room. Bed bug traps using CO2 and heat to attract the bugs may also be useful to identify infestations when bed bug abundance is low.
To reduce the opportunity for acquiring a new bed bug infestation, travelers should take the following precautions: 1) assess the room for the presence of bed bugs by a quick examination of the bed and bed frame, 2) avoid placing suitcases and clothing on the ground or room furniture, and 3) upon return home, launder all clothing (even those not worn) using the hottest settings for each fabric type, and store travel luggage in the garage.
Management of bed bugs within an infested premise is typically achieved using insecticides, though methods such as targeted vacuuming and heat treatment may also be utilized. The recently discovered pheromone which protects immature bed bugs from mating attempts by males has generated some interest as a possible control mechanism. Application of this pheromone to bed bug aggregation sites within an infested home may reduce male mating even with mature females and this could cause populations to collapse.
Bed Bug BiologyOn this page you will learn everything you ever wanted to know about the biology of the common bed bug. The Bed Bug is an insect of the family Cimicidae. The Cimicidae family of insects feed exclusively on blood which they require in order to develop and reproduce. 1 There are a number of closely related species in this family that feed on birds, bats and other animals. However, the species most adapted to living with humans is the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, which is found world wide. 1 Bed Bug Life Cycle A bed bug goes through five developmental stages in it’s life, from the newly hatched nymph to full grown maturity. To reach each of the five nymphal stages bed bugs must have at least one blood meal. 1 As the immature bed bugs develop they continue to become larger and darker until reaching adulthood. The bed bug development cycle (from egg to adult) is typically completed in one to two months. However, cool temperatures or limited access to a blood meal may extend the development time. Adults will typically live from six months to a year. Under favorable conditions, the common bed bug is capable of producing three or more generations per year. 2 A bed bug nymph squeezesout of one of the eggs Photo Credit 7 An adult bed bug during a blood meal Photo Credit 2 Photo shows eggs, nymphs, and adults beneath carpet edge. Photo Credit 2 Bed Bug Appearance Adult bed bugs are about 3/16-1/5 inch (6-7 mm) long, broadly oval, flat, brown to reddish-brown true bugs, with a 3-segmented beak, 4-segmented antennae, and vestigial wings. They have very thin, vertically flattened bodies covered with short, golden-colored hairs. They give off a distinctive musty, sweetish odor, due to certain chemicals that are produced by glands in their ventral thorax. The tips of their abdomens are usually pointed in males but rounded in females. 3 In size, they are often compared to lentils or apple seeds. The immatures (nymphs) resemble the adults, but are smaller and lighter in color. Newly hatched nymphs are straw-colored and no bigger than a pinhead. 1 Bed Bug Habits Bed bugs do not fly, but can move rapidly over floors, walls, ceilings and other surfaces. Bed bugs are nocturnal insects and lead a very cryptic lifestyle. As a result, bed bugs are often present for weeks or even months before a single bug is ever seen by the occupants of an infested structure. They live in cracks and crevices associated with bed frames, head boards, mattresses and box springs. However they also will disperse away from the bed and can live between or beneath floorboards, carpeting, under decorative moldings, in or under furniture, behind picture frames, inside wall voids, etc. There is virtually no crack too small for this insect to occupy. It is from these secluded cracks and crevices that the bugs emerge during the nighttime hours to feed on their sleeping host. The bites are typically painless and go undetected. 3 Bed Bug Reproduction Female bed bugs lay their eggs in secluded areas, depositing 1, 2 or more eggs per day and hundreds during a lifetime. The eggs are tiny, whitish, and hard to see on most surfaces without magnification (individual eggs are about the size of a dust speck). When first laid, the eggs are sticky, causing them to adhere to surfaces. 2 All bedbugs mate via a process termed traumatic insemination. Instead of inserting their genitalia into the female’s reproductive tract as is typical in copulation, males instead pierce females with hypodermic genitalia and ejaculate into the body cavity. 4 Bed Bug Bites If you searched for this page there is a good chance you recently discovered that you have been getting bitten by bugs when sleeping. So let me put your mind at ease by saying bed bug bites carry no risk of transmitting disease. Besides the mild irritation and unsightly marks all over your body, you’re in no real danger. Now that you have some peace of mind, here is everything you could possibly want to know about bed bug bites. The first thing you should probably know about bed bugs bites is that they are not really bites at all. Bed bugs suck blood from humans by piercing pierce the skin of its host with two hollow tubes. One tube injects saliva which contains anesthetics, so that the host feels nothing, and anticoagulants, so that the blood flows out freely. The other tube sucks then blood in. v Bed bugs are most active at night and bite any exposed areas of skin while an individual is sleeping. The face, neck, hands, and arms are common sites for bed bug bites. 4 It may take 3-12 minutes for one bug to feed to repletion. About 20% of the time, adult bed bugs and large nymphs will void remains of earlier blood meals while feeding. This produces the typical rusty or tarry spots seen on bed sheets or in bug hiding places (in crevices or protected areas around the bed or anywhere in the room). 3 Symptoms of Bed Bug bites The bite itself is painless and is not noticed or mistaken for flea or mosquito bites or other types of rash or skin conditions. The bed bug bite itself is usually almost undetectable, but their saliva contains biologically and enzymatically active proteins that may cause a progressive, visibly detectable allergenic skin reaction to repeated bites. Small, flat, or raised bumps on the skin are the most common sign redness, swelling, and itching commonly occur. If scratched, the bite areas can become infected. 1 Not everyone reacts to bed bites in the same fashion, some people have reactions that are delayed for several days or more while others do not react at all. Reactions to bites can also vary significantly between individuals from a mild itchy welt to a more severe rash like symptom. However, the most common reactions appear as a raised reddened welt similar to a mosquito bite. 1 Bed bug bites on the upper arm of a young woman Photo Credit 7 Bed bug bites have varying effects on the person bitten Photo Credit 6 Bed Bug Bites and the Transmission of Disease As mentioned above bed bugs have not been conclusively proven to carry infectious microbes however, researchers have implicated bed bugs as possible vectors of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), and studies are ongoing to determine whether bed bugs may serve as disease carriers. 6 Currently, over 28 disease pathogens have been found in bed bugs, transmission of these pathogens to humans has never been documented and is considered highly unlikely. For this reason, they are not considered a serious disease threat. 1 Treatment of Bed Bug Bites Typically, no treatment is required for bed bug bites. If itching is severe, steroid creams or oral antihistamines may be used for symptom relief. Secondary bacterial infections that develop over heavily scratched areas may require the use of antibiotics. 6 If you are concerned about your bites, you should seek the care of a medical professional. Humans who are frequently bitten by bed bugs may develop a sensitivity “syndrome” that can include nervousness, almost constant agitation (“jumpiness”), and sleeplessness. In such cases, either removing the bed bugs (physically or chemically) or relocating the person can cause the syndrome to disappear over time. 3 Individuals still suffering long after bed bug removal may be suffering from some form of Parasitosis and may require professional psychological treatment. Call today at 1-800-986-1006 for help with a bed bug infestation. You’re also welcome to complete the form below and a caring Hearts Pest Management representative will contact you shortly.
Where Can I Find More Information on Bed Bugs?
The following Web site contains accurate and detailed information about bed bug biology and bed bug control.
An excellent reference book devoted to the biology of bed bugs and their relatives is:
Usinger, R.L. 1966, Monograph of the Cimicidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Thomas Say Foundation, Vol. 7, Entomological Society of America, College Park, MD.
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